by Scott Mehl
- Alexandrine (1820) – married Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, no issue
- Ludwig (1822) – died in infancy
- Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Baden (1824) – unmarried
- Wilhelm (1829) – married Maria Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg, had issue
- Karl (1832) – married Rosalie von Beust, had issue
- Marie (1834) – married Ernst Leopold, 4th Prince of Leiningen, had issue
- Cecilie 1839 – married Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich of Russia, had issue
On September 20, 1856, Friedrich married Princess Luise of Prussia at the Neues Palais in Potsdam. Luise was the daughter of the future King Wilhelm I of Prussia and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. The marriage was encouraged by Luise’s uncle, King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who wanted to form an alliance with Baden to strengthen Prussia’s influence within the German Confederation against Austria. Friedrich and Luise had three children:
- Friedrich II, Grand Duke of Baden (1857) – married Hilda of Nassau, no issue
- Princess Victoria (1862) – married King Gustav V of Sweden, had issue
- Prince Ludwig (1865) – unmarried
Friedrich’s father died in 1852 and was succeeded by Friedrich’s elder brother, Ludwig II. However, Ludwig was deemed mentally ill, and Friedrich was appointed Regent during his reign. When Ludwig died in 1858, Friedrich succeeded him as Grand Duke Friedrich II.
As Grand Duke, Friedrich sided with Prussia in the wars against Austria and France, and represented Baden at the Palace of Versailles when his father-in-law was created Emperor of Germany in 1871. Within Baden, he was a strong supporter of constitutional monarchy, which was often at odds with his Prussian in-laws. His reign saw the adoption of civil marriage, as well as free elections to the Baden parliament.
Friedrich I died on September 28, 1907 while at his summer residence on the island of Mainau. He is buried in the Grand Ducal Chapel in the Pheasant Garden in Karlsruhe. He was succeeded by his elder son, Friederich II, who would become the last Grand Duke of Baden.