Author Archives: Susan

Royal News: Wednesday 26 July 2017

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July 26: Today in Royal History

King Otto of Greece; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 26, 1469 – Lancastrian victory at the Battle of Edgecote Moor
Wikipedia: Battle of Edgecote Moor

July 26, 1867 – Death of former King Otto of Greece, born Prince Otto of Bavaria, at Neue Residenz in Bamberg, Bavaria (Germany); buried at Theatinerkirche St. Kajetan in Munich, Bavaria (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: King Otto of Greece

July 26, 1944 – Death of Reza Shah Pahlavi, former Shah of Iran and father of the last Shah, in exile in Johannesburg, South Africa; buried at Reza Shah’s Mausoleum in Ray, Tehran, Iran which was later destroyed during the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Wikipedia: Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran

July 25: Today in Royal History

Elisabeth of Bavaria, wife of King Albert I of the Belgians; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 25, 1137 – Wedding of Louis VII, King of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Wikipedia: Louis VII, King of France
Unofficial Royalty: Eleanor of Aquitaine

July 25, 1554 – Wedding of Queen Mary I of England and King Philip II of Spain at Winchester Cathedral in England
Wikipedia: King Philip II of Spain
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Mary I of England

July 25, 1603 – Coronation of King James I of England
James’ wife Anne of Denmark was crowned with him.
Unofficial Royalty: King James VI of Scotland/King James I of England

July 25, 1642 – Birth of Louis I, Prince of Monaco
Wikipedia: Louis I, Prince of Monaco

July 25, 1797 – Birth of Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, wife of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, at Rumpenheim Castle in Kassel (Germany)
Augusta is the grandmother of Queen Mary, wife of King George V of the United Kingdom.
Wikipedia: Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, Duchess of Cambridge

July 25, 1860 – Birth of Louise Margaret of Prussia, wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, at Marmorpalais in Potsdam, Prussia (Germany)
Full name: Luise Margarete Alexandra Victoria Agnes
Unofficial Royalty: Louise Margaret of Prussia, Duchess of Connaught

July 25, 1876 – Birth of Elisabeth of Bavaria, wife of King Albert I of the Belgians, at Possenhofen Castle in Bavaria (Germany)
Full name: Elisabeth Gabriele Valérie Marie
Unofficial Royalty: Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Belgium

July 25, 1938 – Death of Prince Franz I of Liechtenstein at Valtice, now in the Czech Republic; buried at the Liechtenstein Crypt in Vranov nearby Brno, Czech Republic
Wikipedia: Prince Franz I of Liechtenstein

July 25, 1970 – Birth of Lord Nicholas Windsor, son of HRH The Duke of Kent, at University College Hospital in London, England
Full name: Nicholas Charles Edward Jonathan
Wikipedia: Lord Nicholas Windsor

July 24: Today in Royal History

William, Duke of Gloucester, Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 24, 1567 – Mary, Queen of Scots forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son King James VI of Scotland, the future King James I of England
Unofficial Royalty: Mary, Queen of Scots
Unofficial Royalty: King James VI of Scotland/King James I of England

July 24, 1689 – Birth of William, Duke of Gloucester, son of Queen Anne of Great Britain, at Hampton Court Palace in Richmond, England
William was the only one of Queen Anne’s numerous children to survive a significant amount of time. A sickly child, who suffered from hydrocephalus, he died at age 11. The main street in Williamsburg in Virginia, the colonial capital of Virginia, was named after him. If you visit Colonial Williamsburg, you can walk on Duke of Gloucester Street which runs from the House of Burgesses to the main entrance of The College of William and Mary. It’s called DOG Street by the locals and college students.
Unofficial Royalty: William, Duke of Gloucester

July 24, 1817 – Birth of Grand Duke Adolphe of Luxembourg at Biebrich Palace in Wiesbaden (Germany)
Adolphe became Grand Duke upon the accession of Queen Wilhelmina to the Dutch throne. The three previous kings of the Netherlands had also been Grand Dukes of Luxembourg. However, because of the Salic Law, Wilhelmina could not succeed to the throne of Luxembourg.
Unofficial Royalty: Grand Duke Adolphe of Luxembourg

July 24, 1860 – Birth of Princess Charlotte of Prussia, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, at Neues Palais in Potsdam, Prussia (Germany)
Full name: Viktoria Elisabeth Auguste Charlotte
Princess Charlotte was the daughter of Victoria, Princess Royal and Frederick III, German Emperor. She married her second cousin Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Charlotte of Prussia, Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen

Royal News: Sunday 23 July 2017

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Royal Birthdays & Anniversaries: July 23 – July 29

Lord Nicholas Windsor and his brother George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, Photo Credit – www.telegraph.co.uk

47th birthday of Lord Nicholas Windsor, son of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent; born at University College Hospital in London, England on July 25, 1970
Full name: Nicholas Charles Edward Jonathan
Wikipedia: Lord Nicholas Windsor

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21st birthday of Samuel Chatto, son of Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones and grandson of Princess Margaret; born in London, England on July 28, 1996
Full name: Samuel David Benedict
Wikipedia: Lady Sarah Chatto: Marriage and Issue

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Wedding of Prince Andrew of The United Kingdom and Sarah Ferguson

by Susan Flantzer

Photo Credit – By Elke Wetzig (Elya) – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14947384

Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson were married at Westminster Abbey in London, England on July 23, 1986.

Prince Andrew’s Family

HRH Prince Andrew Albert Christian Edward was born February 19, 1960 at Buckingham Palace, London. Andrew was the third child of Queen Elizabeth II and her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, born HRH Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark. Elizabeth was the elder daughter and the first of two children of King George VI and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, who was the youngest daughter and the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Philip’s father was HRH Prince Andrew of Greece, the son of King George I of Greece (formerly Prince William of Denmark) and Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia. His mother was Her Serene Highness Princess Alice of Battenberg. Alice was the daughter of Prince Louis of Battenberg and Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. During World War I, when King George V ordered his family to relinquish their German styles and titles, Prince Louis became the Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven. Princess Victoria’s mother was Princess Alice, a daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Therefore, Andrew’s parents are both great-great-grandchildren of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

Andrew has two older siblings Prince Charles, born on November 14, 1948 and Princess Anne, born on August 15, 1950. When his mother became Queen on February 6, 1952, her duties as Queen postponed additions to the family. Prince Andrew was born eight years later and the youngest child in the family, Prince Edward, was born on March 10, 1964.

On his wedding day, July 23, 1986, Andrew was created Duke of York, the traditional title of the second son of the monarch, along with the subsidiary titles, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killyleagh. These titles were also held by his maternal grandfather, King George VI, and his maternal great-grandfather, King George V, both of whom were second sons of monarchs.

Queen Elizabeth’s children have been unlucky in marriage. Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson separated on March 19, 1992 and divorced on May 30, 1996. The couple remains on friendly terms and Sarah, no longer HRH The Duchess of York, uses the style of a divorced duchess, Sarah, Duchess of York. Charles and Diana, The Prince and Princess of Wales, separated in December 1992 and divorced in August 1996. Exactly a year later, Diana, Princess of Wales tragically died in a car accident in Paris. In 1974, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a Lieutenant in the 1st Queen’s Dragoon Guards, but the couple separated in 1989 and divorced in 1992. Princess Anne married again in 1992 to Timothy Laurence, then a Commander in the Royal Navy. Prince Edward has been the most stable of the Queen’s children as far as marriage is concerned. In 1999, he married Sophie Rhys-Jones, then a public relations manager with her own firm and that marriage still continues as does Princess Anne’s marriage to Timothy Laurence. In 2005, Prince Charles married Camilla Parker-Bowles with whom he had a romantic relationship before and during his marriage.

Sarah Ferguson’s Family

Sarah and her sister Jane

Sarah Margaret Ferguson was born on October 15, 1959 in the Marylebone section of London. Her father was Major Ronald Ferguson, the son of Andrew Ferguson and Marian Montagu-Douglas-Scott, a first cousin of Lady Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott, who married Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, third son of King George V. Sarah’s father had a career in the Army and was polo manager for the Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales. Sarah’s mother was Susan Mary Wright, the daughter of Lieutenant FitzHerbert Wright and The Honorable Doreen Wingfield. Mervyn Wingfield, 8th Viscount Powerscourt was Sarah’s maternal great grandfather. Sarah had an elder sister Jane Louisa who was born on August 26, 1957. The children’s parents divorced in 1974 and both remarried.

Sarah does boast a royal descent although it is from the wrong side of the sheets. Like the Duchess of Cornwall, the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and the late Princess Alice of Gloucester, Sarah is descended from King Charles II via his illegitimate children. Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, son of Charles II and his mistress Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth and James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II and his mistress Lucy Walter are her ancestors.

The Engagement

Sarah and Andrew had crossed paths throughout their lives, but they first really noticed each other a couple of years prior to the engagement at a weekend party at Floors Castle, the Scottish home of the Duke and Duchess of Roxburghe. Fascinated by Sarah’s red hair, Andrew spent the weekend photographing her. However, both Sarah and Andrew were involved with others at the time. Despite this, a friendship began to develop.

Sarah visited Windsor Castle, attended Ascot Week, dined at Buckingham Palace, and attended the ballet at Covent Garden with Andrew. Their friendship was slowly becoming something more. Their budding romance was helped along by the matchmaking skills of the Princess of Wales. Diana and Andrew, having been childhood neighbors at Sandringham, were longtime friends. At one time, there had been speculation that Diana and Andrew would eventually marry. Diana was still close to her brother-in-law and Sarah was a good friend. Diana thought it would be a marvelous idea for her two dear friends to marry.

On February 19, 1986, Andrew’s birthday, at the Scottish home of the Duke and Duchess of Roxburghe, where their romance first started, Andrew proposed to Sarah. Sarah accepted but added, “If you wake up tomorrow morning, you can tell me it’s all a huge joke.”

Sources:
“Sarah, The Duchess of York, My Story” by Jeff Coplon
“Fergie” by Ingrid Seward
“Duchess” by Andrew Morton
“The Star Ledger” – July 24, 1986
“USA Today” – July 24, 1986

The Engagement Ring

Sarah’s engagement ring was made by the crown jewelers, Garrard, from sketches Andrew himself had made. It was completed in just under a week. Featured in the ring was a Burma ruby surrounded by 10 drop diamonds. The mounting was 18 karat white and yellow gold.

Sources:
“Sarah, The Duchess of York, My Story” by Jeff Coplon
“Fergie” by Ingrid Seward
“Duchess” by Andrew Morton
“The Star Ledger” – July 24, 1986
“USA Today” – July 24, 1986

Partial Guest List

 

British Royal Family and Relatives

  • The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh
  • The Prince and Princess of Wales
  • Prince William of Wales
  • Prince Henry of Wales
  • Princess Anne and Captain Mark Phillips
  • Peter Phillips
  • Zara Phillips
  • Prince Edward
  • Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
  • Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
  • Viscount Linley
  • Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones
  • Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester
  • The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester
  • Earl of Ulster
  • Lady Davina Windsor
  • Lady Rose Windsor
  • The Duke and Duchess of Kent
  • Earl of St Andrews
  • Lady Helen Windsor
  • Lord Nicholas Windsor
  • Princess Alexandra, The Hon. Mrs. Ogilvy and The Hon. Mr. Angus Ogilvy
  • James Ogilvy
  • Marina Ogilvy
  • Prince and Princess Michael of Kent
  • Lord Frederick Windsor
  • Lady Gabriella Windsor
  • Lady Mary Whitley
  • The Lady Saltoun
  • The Countess Mountbatten of Burma
  • Lord Romsey
  • Lady Pamela Hicks
  • Lady Rose Anson

Sarah Ferguson’s Family

  • Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Ferguson
  • Mrs. and Mr. Hector Barrantes
  • Jane Ferguson
  • Seamus Makim
  • Ayesha Makim
  • Heidi Luedecke
  • Andrew Ferguson
  • Alice Stileman
  • Eliza Ferguson

Royalty

  • King Olav V of Norway
  • Crown Prince Harald and Crown Princess Sonja of Norway
  • King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia of Sweden
  • Queen Beatrix and Prince Claus of the Netherlands
  • King Michael I and Queen Anne of the Romania
  • King Constantine II and Queen Anne-Marie of the Hellenes
  • Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece
  • Prince Nikolaos of Greece and Denmark
  • Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark
  • Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Joséphine Charlotte of Luxembourg
  • Prince Franz Josef II and Princess Gina of Liechtenstein
  • Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Michiko Princess of Japan
  • Crown Prince Hassan and Crown Princess Sarvath of Jordan
  • Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia
  • Prince and Princess Tomislav of Yugoslavia
  • Prince Nikola of Yugoslavia
  • Princess Katarina of Yugoslavia
  • Prince Christopher of Yugoslavia
  • Princess Maria Tatiana of Yugoslavia
  • Prince and Princess Alexander of Yugoslavia
  • Princess Elizabeth of Yugoslavia
  • Hereditary Prince Albert of Monaco
  • Prince and Princess George William of Hanover
  • Prince Georg of Hanover
  • Prince Karl of Hesse and Countess Yvonne Szapáry von Muraszombath
  • Princess Christina Margarethe, Mrs. van Eyck and Mr. Robert Floris van Eyck
  • Princess Dorothea and Prince Friedrich Karl zu Windisch-Grätz
  • The Princess of Hesse and by Rhine
  • The Prince and Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
  • Prince Andreas and Princess Luise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
  • Prince Albrecht and Princess Maria-Hildegard of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
  • Princess Beatrix of Hohenlohe-Langenburg

Other Notable Guests

  • Sir Michael Caine
  • Sir Elton John
  • Estée Lauder
  • Nancy Reagan, First Lady of the United States

 

The Wedding Attire

Sarah’s wedding dress was deemed a huge success by fashion designers and royal watchers. Designed by Linka Cierach, a couturier who had a modest shop in Fulham, West London, the dress was an ornate, Edwardian gown of ivory satin, heavily embroidered with anchors and waves, symbols alluding to Andrew’s naval career; and bees and thistles, symbols of Sarah’s own coat of arms. Completing the intricate embroidery was the letter “S” on the bodice. The train was 17 1/2 feet in length, with a large bead worked letter “A” near the end. Sarah’s veil was of pure silk and the edging embroidered with hearts and sequins. Her shoes were covered in matching beaded duchess satin. The floral headdress consisted of lily of the valley, cream roses, gardenias and cream lily petals. Sewn in the underskirt of Sarah’s dress were several blue bows containing good-luck messages from her family. Estimates by experts placed the cost of the ensemble at between $7,500 and $12,000.

Prince Andrew looked handsome and poised in the dress uniform of a Royal Navy lieutenant, complete with a sword at his side, which appeared to give him some trouble when he slipped Sarah’s gold ring onto her finger.

The four bridesmaids wore frothy dresses of peach taffeta silk, trimmed in ecru and peach cotton lace and beautiful floral headdresses. The page boys wore midshipmen and sailor’s uniforms of the Royal Navy from 1782, complete with sailor hats.

Sources:
“Sarah, The Duchess of York, My Story” by Jeff Coplon
“Fergie” by Ingrid Seward
“Duchess” by Andrew Morton
“The Star Ledger” – July 24, 1986
“USA Today” – July 24, 1986

The Wedding Attendants

Sarah’s bridesmaids were Alice Ferguson, her half sister; Lady Rosanagh Innes-Ker, the Duke of Roxburghe’s daughter; Laura Fellowes, the Princess of Wales’ niece; and Zara Phillips, daughter of Princess Anne.

The page boys were Sarah’s seven-year-old half-brother, Andrew; her sister Jane’s son, Seamus; Peter Philips, Princess Anne’s son; and four-year-old Prince William, second in line to the throne.

Sources:
“Sarah, The Duchess of York, My Story” by Jeff Coplon
“Fergie” by Ingrid Seward
“Duchess” by Andrew Morton
“The Star Ledger” – July 24, 1986
“USA Today” – July 24, 1986

The Ceremony

In the early morning hours of July 23, 1986, Sarah prepared to walk down the aisle of Westminster Abbey to wed her Prince and become Her Royal Highness The Duchess of York. Tens of thousands lined the mile-long route of the wedding procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey. 800 million people were in front of their televisions, including millions of bleary-eyed, early rising Americans. As Sarah and her father Major Ronald Ferguson left Clarence House in the Glass Coach, the “Queen’s Weather” prevailed and the sun broke through the clouds.

With only minor mistakes during the ceremony, Prince Andrew, Duke of York married Sarah Margaret Ferguson. The only sign of nerves on Sarah’s part came when she repeated Andrew’s full name, Andrew Albert Christian Edward. Andrew had minor difficulty placing the ring on Sarah’s finger. His sword would not cooperate and kept getting in the way. However, despite these minor bobbles, they were pronounced man and wife at 11:50 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Sarah had chosen the traditional service in which she pledged to “obey”.

Sarah’s wedding band was a simple one made of the same Welsh gold as Queen Elizabeth’s, Princess Margaret’s, Princess Anne’s and Princess Diana’s. Sarah caused quite a ripple of surprise when she presented Andrew with a gold pinkie band. This was not in the script of the wedding but was a royal family tradition.

Sources:
“Sarah, The Duchess of York, My Story” by Jeff Coplon
“Fergie” by Ingrid Seward
“Duchess” by Andrew Morton
“The Star Ledger” – July 24, 1986
“USA Today” – July 24, 1986

The Wedding Breakfast

After the ceremony, Andrew and Sarah made their procession down the Mall to Buckingham Palace in an open-topped, 1802 State Landau carriage, amidst cheers from the throngs of well wishers along the way.

Members of the both families sipped champagne, had photographs taken, and waited for the bride and groom to arrive. Finally, the newly married Duke and Duchess of York emerged for the traditional balcony scene. Andrew grinned and waved to the thousands of people, while Sarah teased the crowd by cupping her hand to her ear when they shouted out “We want a kiss!” The request was granted when the Duke of York kissed his beautiful bride.

Andrew, Sarah, and the wedding party returned inside to feast upon a buffet of lobster, roast lamb cutlets, strawberries and cream, fine wine, and Bollinger champagne.

After Sarah distributed gifts of bow brooches to each of the bridesmaids and cufflinks for the pages, the cake was cut. Baked by three chefs at HMS Raleigh, a Navy supply school, the six-tiered, 240-pound confection was cut by Sarah and Andrew with the Duke’s ceremonial sword.

Sources:
“Sarah, The Duchess of York, My Story” by Jeff Coplon
“Fergie” by Ingrid Seward
“Duchess” by Andrew Morton
“The Star Ledger” – July 24, 1986
“USA Today” – July 24, 1986

The Honeymoon

As family and friends, nannies, chambermaids, and cooks awaited the final appearance and eventual departure of the bride and groom, the children tossed handfuls of confetti meant for Sarah and Andrew at each other. When the newlyweds emerged, they were showered with rose petals from silver bowls held by footmen.

The couple made their way to Heathrow Airport in an open carriage, with a paper maiche satellite dish and sign attached reading “Phone Home” put there as a practical joke by Prince Edward, Andrew’s younger brother. The Princess of Wales and Viscount Linley, Princess Margaret’s son, placed a king-sized teddy bear inside the coach. Inside the courtyard, the guests ran after the carriage, shouting well wishes, including Queen Elizabeth who chased after Prince William.

Prince Andrew, Duke of York and Sarah, Duchess of York, boarded a royal jet, emblazoned with “Just Married” on the rear door, for the Portuguese Azores Islands. The couple then spent their five-day honeymoon aboard the royal yacht Britannia in the Atlantic.

Sources:
“Sarah, The Duchess of York, My Story” by Jeff Coplon
“Fergie” by Ingrid Seward
“Duchess” by Andrew Morton
“The Star Ledger” – July 24, 1986
“USA Today” – July 24, 1986

July 23: Today in Royal History

Beatrice And Henry

Wedding of Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom and Prince Henry of Battenberg (see below for who’s who in the photo); Photo Credit – www.victorian-gothic.co.uk

July 23, 1885 – Wedding of Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and Prince Henry of Battenberg, at St. Mildred’s Church in Whippingham, Isle of Wight, England
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Henry of Battenberg
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom

THE BACK: (L-R): Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, brother of the groom; Princess Louise of Wales; Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine; Princess Victoria of Wales; Prince Franz Joseph of Battenberg, brother of the groom

THE MIDDLE: (L-R): Princess Maud of Wales; Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine; Princesses Marie Louise and Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein

THE FRONT: (L-R): Princesses Victoria Melita, Marie, and Alexandra of Edinburgh and bridal couple

July 23, 1892 – Birth of Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, in Ejersa Goro, Ethiopia
Wikipedia: Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia

July 23, 1952 – King Farouk of Egypt deposed by military coup led by Gamal Abdel Nasser
Farouk is famous for saying, “In a few years there will be only five kings in the world — the King of England and the four kings in a pack of cards.”
Wikipedia: King Farouk of Egypt

July 23, 1961 – Death of Mrs. Higashikuni Morihiro, formerly Princess Teru, at the Imperial Household Agency Hospital
Princess Teru was the eldest sister of Emperor Akihito.
Wikipedia: Princess Teru

July 23, 1986 – Wedding of Prince Andrew, Duke of York and Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson
Unofficial Royalty: Sarah, Duchess of York
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Andrew, Duke of York

July 23, 1999 – Death of King Hassan II of Morocco in Rabat, Morocco; buried at the Mausoleum of Mohammed V in Rabat, Morocco
Wikipedia: King Hassan II of Morocco

July 23, 2007 – Death of Mohammed Zahir Shah, last king of Afghanistan, at the presidential palace compound in Kabul, Afghanistan; buried at Maranjan Hill at the presidential palace compound in Kabul, Afghanistan
Wikipedia: Mohammed Zahir Shah, King of Afghanistan

Royal News: Saturday 22 July 2017

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Wedding of King Haakon VII of Norway and Princess Maud of Wales

by Susan Flantzer

Painting by Laurits Tuxen, 1897; Credit – Wikipedia

King Haakon VII of Norway, Prince Carl of Denmark at the time, and Princess Maud of Wales were married in the Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace in London, England on July 22, 1896.

Carl’s Early Life

Standing, left to right: Crown Prince Frederik (King Frederik VIII), Princess Louise, Prince Carl King Haakon VII) Sitting, left to right: Princess Ingeborg,  Crown Princess Louise (Queen Louise), Princess Thyra, Prince Harald and Prince Christan (King Christian X); 1886; Photo Credit – http://glucksburg.blogspot.com

Born Prince Carl of Denmark (Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel) at the Charlottenlund Palace on August 3, 1872, he was the second son of the four sons and the second of the eight children of King Frederik VIII of Denmark and Princess Louise of Sweden. At the time of his birth, his paternal grandfather King Christian IX of Denmark sat upon the Danish throne and his maternal grandfather King Carl XV of Sweden and Norway sat upon the Swedish throne. Carl was related to many European royals via his paternal uncles and aunts and had many royal first cousins including King George V of the United Kingdom, King Constantine I of Greece, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and his future wife Princess Maud of Wales. Carl’s elder brother was King Christian X of Denmark who reigned from 1912 – 1947.

Prince Carl grew up with his seven siblings at his parents’ residence Frederik VIII’s Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and in the family’s summer residence Charlottenlund Palace, north of Copenhagen. As a younger son, it was expected that he would have a career in the military and he trained as a naval officer at the Royal Danish Naval Academy in Copenhagen. He served as a lieutenant and participated in several sailing expeditions with the Royal Danish Navy from 1893 until 1905. In 1905, Carl became King of Norway, taking the name Haakon VII.

Maud’s Early Life

Standing, left to right: Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence; Princess Maud (Queen Maud of Norway), Alexandra, Princess of Wales (Queen Alexandra); Princess Louise (Princess Royal); Edward, Prince of Wales (King Edward VII); Sitting, left to right: Prince George (King George V); Princess Victoria; 1889

 

Princess Maud of Wales (Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria) was born on November 26, 1869 at Marlborough House in London, England. She was the third and youngest daughter and the fifth of the six children of the Prince and Princess of Wales (the future King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark). Princess Maud had five siblings including the future King George V of the United Kingdom. Maud’s mother was a paternal aunt of her future husband. At the time of her birth, Maud’s grandmother Queen Victoria sat upon the British throne.

Growing up, Maud was the most exuberant of the three sisters and was known as Harry in the family. She developed a one-sided romance with Prince Francis of Teck, the brother of her future sister-in-law Mary of Teck. Maud and Francis exchanged a couple of letters, but it was soon apparent that Francis was not interested in Maud.

The Engagement

Engagement photograph with the bride’s parents, Queen Alexandra and King Edward VII (Photo: W&D Downey, London, The Royal Court Photo Archive); Photo Credit – http://www.royalcourt.no

Because Maud’s mother was a Danish Princess, Maud visited her Danish relatives often and was familiar with her first cousin Prince Carl of Denmark, who was three years younger than her. They had played together with their other cousins at family reunions held in Denmark at Fredensborg Castle and Bernstorff Castle. There had been family gossip that Maud and Carl might marry, so it was not all that surprising when Carl proposed to Maud during a family reunion at Fredensborg Castle and Maud accepted. On October 29, 1895, the couple’s engagement was announced. Maud’s mother had some concerns about the age difference, but Maud realized Carl would make a good husband for her. She loved the sea and sailing, so a husband who was in the navy would be quite appropriate.

Maud’s grandmother Queen Victoria was delighted. Marie Mallet, who served as Maid of Honour and Extra Woman of the Bedchamber to Queen Victoria from 1887-1900 wrote in her diary that Maud’s engagement “…caused much excitement at Balmoral…and has been the cause of much telegraphing…The Queen is delighted and healths were drunk at dinner.” The Prince of Wales (future King Edward VII) gave his daughter Appleton House on the Sandringham Estate for Maud to use on her visits to England.

Carl had responsibilities to the Danish Royal Navy. He was due to go on a five-month assignment to the West Indies, so the wedding was scheduled for the next summer, on July 22, 1896.

Earlier in 1896, Prince Henry of Battenberg, the husband of Maud’s paternal aunt Princess Beatrice, had died. Henry had persuaded Queen Victoria to allow him to go to West Africa to fight in the Anglo-Ashanti Wars. He arrived in Africa on Christmas Day of 1895. By January 10, 1896, Henry was sick with malaria and it was decided to send him back to England, but Henry died aboard the ship HMS Blonde off the coast of Sierra Leone on January 20, 1896. There were conflicts in the family over whether the marriage should take place during the mourning period. Finally, it was decided that the wedding should go on as planned and that Princess Beatrice and her children would not attend.

Wedding Guests

Family of the Groom

Princess Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe, born Princess Louise of Denmark, sister of the groom and first cousin of the bride, 1895; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

  • Crown Prince Frederik (father of the groom, uncle of the bride, the future King Frederik VIII of Denmark)
  • Crown Princess Louise of Denmark (mother of the groom, born Princess Louise of Sweden)
  • Prince Christian of Denmark (brother of the groom, first cousin of the bride, the future King Christian X of Denmark)
  • Princess Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe (sister of the groom, first cousin of the bride, born Princess Louise of Denmark)
  • Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe (brother-in-law of the groom)
  • Prince Harald of Denmark (brother of the groom, first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Ingeborg of Denmark (sister of the groom, first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Thyra of Denmark (sister of the groom, first cousin of the bride)
  • Prince Gustav of Denmark (brother of the groom, first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Dagmar of Denmark (sister of the groom, first cousin of the bride)

Family of the Bride

Queen Victoria, grandmother of the bride, 1897; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

  • Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (grandmother of the bride)
  • The Prince of Wales (father of the bride, the future King Edward VII of the United Kingdom)
  • The Princess of Wales (mother of the bride, aunt of the groom, born Princess Alexandra of Denmark)
  • The Duke of York (brother of the bride, first cousin of the groom, the future King George V of the United Kingdom )
  • The Duchess of York (sister-in-law of the bride, born Princess Victoria Mary of Teck)
  • Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife (sister of the bride, first cousin of the groom)
  • Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife (brother-in-law of the bride)
  • Lady Alexandra Duff (niece of the bride)
  • Princess Victoria of Wales (sister of the bride, first cousin of the groom)
  • Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh (uncle of the bride)
  • The Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Edinburgh (born Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia)
  • Hereditary Prince Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Beatrice of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (aunt of the bride, born Princess Helena)
  • Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (husband of Princess Helena)
  • Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Aribert of Anhalt (first cousin of the bride, born Prince Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein)
  • Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne (aunt of the bride)
  • John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne (husband of Princess Louise, the future 9th Duke of Argyll)
  • Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught (uncle of the bride)
  • The Duchess of Connaught (born Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia)
  • Prince Arthur of Connaught (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Margaret of Connaught (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Patricia of Connaught (first cousin of the bride)
  • Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Alice of Albany (first cousin of the bride)
  • The Duchess of Albany (widow of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, born Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont)

Other Relatives

Crown Prince Constantine I of Greece, first cousin of both the bride and the groom, 1890s; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

  • Crown Prince Constantine of Greece (first cousin of the bride and the groom, the future King Constantine I of Greece)
  • Crown Princess Sophie of Greece (first cousin of the bride, born Princess Sophie of Prussia)
  • Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark (first cousin of the bride and the groom)
  • Prince Heinrich of Prussia (first cousin of the bride, representing his brother Wilhelm II, German Emperor)
  • Grand Duke Ernst of Hesse and by Rhine (first cousin of the bride)
  • Grand Duchess Victoria Melita of Hesse and by Rhine (first cousin of the bride, born Princess Victoria Melita of Edinburgh)
  • Grand Duchess Elisabeth Feodorovna of Russia (first cousin of the bride, born Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine)
  • Grand Duke Serge Alexandrovich of Russia (husband of Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine)
  • Prince Friedrich Karl of Hesse
  • Princess Friedrich Karl of Hesse (first cousin of the bride, born Princess Margarete of Prussia)
  • Prince George, Duke of Cambridge (Queen Victoria’s first cousin)
  • The Duchess of Teck (Queen Victoria’s first cousin, mother of the Duchess of York, born Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge)
  • The Duke of Teck (father of the Duchess of York)
  • Prince Adolphus of Teck (brother of the Duchess of York)
  • Princess Adolphus of Teck (born Lady Margaret Grosvenor)
  • Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (widow of the son of Queen Victoria’s half-sister Princess Feodora of Leiningen)
  • Count Edward Gleichen (son of Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg)
  • Countess Feodora Gleichen (daughter of Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg)
  • Countess Valda Gleichen (daughter of Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg)
  • Countess Helena Gleichen (daughter of Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg)

Other Royals

  • Crown Prince Gustaf of Sweden (the future King Gustaf V of Sweden)
  • Prince Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
  • Princess Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born Princess Louise of Belgium)
  • Princess Elisabeth of Waldeck and Pyrmont
  • Princess Edward of Saxe-Weimar (born Lady Augusta Gordon-Lennox)

Wedding Attendants

 

Bridesmaids

  • Princess Victoria of Wales (sister of the bride)
  • Princess Ingeborg of Denmark (sister of the groom)
  • Princess Thyra of Denmark (sister of the groom)
  • Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Margaret of Connaught (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Patricia of Connaught (first cousin of the bride)
  • Princess Alice of Albany (first cousin of the bride)
  • Lady Alexandra Duff (the bride’s niece)

Supporters of the Groom

  • Prince Christian of Denmark (brother of the groom)
  • Prince Harald of Denmark (brother of the groom)

Prince Christian and Prince Carl arrive at Buckingham Palace; Credit – Illustrated London News

Wedding Attire

 

Princess Maud wanted to dress in a simple fashion. Her dress, designed by Miss Rosalie Whyte of the Royal Female School of Art, had a long train and was made of pure white English satin that had been woven in Spitalfields, a section of London known for its weaving. Maud wore her mother’s veil and instead of a tiara, she wore flowers in her hair. Her jewelry was simple, a choker necklace and several bracelets, and she carried a bouquet of orange blossoms, German myrtle, and a mixture of white jessamine.

The bridesmaids wore white dresses trimmed with red geraniums while the Carl wore his Royal Danish Navy uniform.

Wedding Ceremony

 The Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace

 

The wedding was held in the Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace in London, England at 12:30 PM on July 22, 1896, a sunny and pleasant day. It was a family affair, rather than a state occasion. Queen Victoria was already at Buckingham Palace, so she made no public appearance during the wedding procession. The streets of London were decorated with British and Danish flags and flowers. Two military units, the Life Guards and the Coldstream Guards, lined the short distance from Marlborough House, the home of Maud’s parents, and Buckingham Palace. Crowds gathered near the Palace in anticipation of the procession.

Early arrivals to the Palace included minor members of the British royal family and foreign royals. First in the carriage procession was the groom with his parents Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Louise and his brothers Prince Christian and Prince Harald. The Princess of Wales and the children of Queen Victoria, accompanied by their children, came next. When the royals, with the exception of the bride’s procession, had gathered at the palace, Queen Victoria led the family into the Private Chapel, accompanied by two of her grandsons, Prince Arthur of Connaught and Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein. Then Prince Carl and his brothers entered the chapel, heading up to the altar to wait for the bride. Maud accompanied by her father The Prince of Wales and her eight bridesmaids were the last to leave Marlborough House.

The wedding ceremony was conducted by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury assisted by Frederick Temple, Bishop of London and Randall Thomas Davidson, Bishop of Winchester. The musicians and choir of the Chapel Royal of St. James’s Palace provided the music during the ceremony. The newlyweds left the chapel the famous wedding march by Felix Mendelssohn from his suite of incidental music to Shakespeare’s play A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The wedding march had become popular after it was used at the wedding of Maud’s aunt Victoria, Princess Royal and the future Friedrich, German Emperor. After signing the wedding registry with 50 other royals, chatting animatedly for several minutes, and embracing the bride and groom, Queen Victoria left and did not attend the wedding luncheon.

Wedding Luncheon

 The State Dining Room at Buckingham Palace

 

Two luncheons were held at Buckingham Palace: one in the State Dining Room for the royal guests and one in the State Ballroom for everyone else. After that, the newlyweds and The Prince and Princess of Wales greeted guests in a receiving line in the Picture Gallery. Later in the afternoon, The Prince and Princess of Wales hosted a garden party at Marlborough House.

Carl and Maud’s wedding cake; Photo Credit – http://www.edwardianpromenade.com

A publication of the day described the wedding cake: “…the separate tiers were encircled with white satin ribbon bordered with pearls, trimmed with bridal buds and tied in true lovers’ knots: a triumphant god of love surmounting the whole structure bore aloft a delicate nautilus shell, from which fell festoons of silver bullion and fragile seaweed.”

At 2:45 PM, the bridal party departed Buckingham Palace and went the long way around via Piccadilly and St. James Street. The streets were beautifully decorated with bunting, flags, and flowers. People lined the streets and the windows of clubs and other buildings along the route were filled with cheering people.

The Honeymoon

Later, Maud and Carl left Marlborough House for St. Pancras Station to board a special train for the railway station in Wolferton, Norfolk, the nearest station to Sandringham House. The newlyweds were to spend a short honeymoon at Appleton House on the Sandringham Estate, the house that Maud’s father had given her as a wedding gift. However, the short honeymoon turned a five-month honeymoon. Some family members had been concerned that Maud would have difficulty leaving England, and that was proving to be true.

Three weeks after the wedding, the Danish Royal Family all met at Bernstorff Castle, ready to welcome the newlyweds to Denmark. Maud’s mother and sister, The Princess of Wales and Princess Victoria, arrived at Bernstorff Castle at the end of August. Maud wrote to her grandmother Queen Victoria that they were going to Denmark in the beginning of September. Family members began arriving in Denmark, expecting to see Carl and Maud. King George I of Greece (Maud and Carl’s uncle) arrived at Berstorff Castle in early September. Within a few days, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (Maud and Carl’s first cousin) and his wife Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna (Maud’s first cousin) arrived and there was still no sign of Maud and Carl in Denmark. Maud and Carl were still in England on December 14 when the family gathered at Frogmore for the annual remembrance ceremony for Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s late husband.

Carl’s leave from the navy was nearly over and it was imperative they leave for Denmark, which they did on December 21, 1896. Maud never did get used to the harsh Danish winters and visited her England as often as she could.

Postscript

King Haakon VII, Queen Maud, and Crown Prince Olav, July 17, 1913; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1905, upon the dissolution of the Union between Sweden and Norway, the Norwegian government began searching for candidates to become King of Norway. Because of his descent from prior Norwegian monarchs, as well as his wife’s British connections, Carl was the overwhelming favorite. Before accepting, Carl insisted that the voices of the Norwegian people be heard in regards to retaining a monarchy. Following a referendum with a 79% majority in favor, Prince Carl was formally offered and then accepted the throne. He sailed for Norway, arriving on November 25, 1905, and took the oath as King two days later. He took the name Haakon VII and Maud became Queen of Norway. The couple’s only child Prince Alexander of Denmark, born in 1903, took on the name Olav, became Crown Prince of Norway, and succeeded his father on the throne in 1957. Because of their mutual descent from King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, the Norwegian Royal Family is the most closely related royal family to the British Royal Family.

Works Cited

  • Holland, E. (2017). Royal Wedding #2: Princess Maud of Wales & King Haakon VII of Norway. [online] Edwardian Promenade. Available at: http://www.edwardianpromenade.com/weddings/royal-wedding-2-princess-maud-of-wales-king-haakon-vii-of-norway/ [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].
  • Kay, E. (2017). Norwegian Royal Weddings: King Haakon VII and Queen Maud. [online] Thecourtjeweller.com. Available at: http://www.thecourtjeweller.com/2016/01/norwegian-royal-weddings-king-haakon.html [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].
  • Query.nytimes.com. (2017). PRINCESS MAUD A BRIDE; MARRIED IN STATE TO PRINCE CHARLES OF DENMARK. The Archbishop of Canterbury Performs the Ceremony at the Buckingham Palace Chapel — The Queen and All the Royal Family Except Princess Beatrice Present — Profuse, Decorations — Vast Crowds Line the Streets.. [online] Available at: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9801EFDC123BEE33A25750C2A9619C94679ED7CF [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].
  • Unofficial Royalty. (2017). King Haakon VII of Norway. [online] Available at: http://www.unofficialroyalty.com/september-21-1957-death-of-king-haakon-vii-of-norway/ [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].
  • Unofficial Royalty. (2017). Maud of Wales, Queen of Norway. [online] Available at: http://www.unofficialroyalty.com/queen-maud-of-norway/ [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].
  • Van der Kiste, J. (2013). Edward VII’s Children. Stroud: The History Press.