Author Archives: Susan

Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent, Princess of Wales

by Susan Flantzer

Joan of Kent was born September 29, 1328 at Woodstock Palace near Oxford in Oxfordshire, England. She was the third of the four children of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell.  Joan’s father was the younger of the two sons of King Edward I of England and his second wife, Margaret of France and was, therefore, a half-brother of King Edward II.

Through her second marriage to the eldest son of King Edward III, Edward, Prince of Wales (the Black Prince), Joan became the very first Princess of Wales. Besides Joan, there have been nine women who were Princess of Wales by their marriages to the Prince of Wales:

  • Anne Neville, wife of Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (never became king, son of King Henry VI)
  • Catherine of Aragon, wife of Arthur, Prince of Wales (predeceased his father King Henry VII)
  • Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George, Prince of Wales (son of King George I, acceded to throne as King George II)
  • Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales (predeceased his father King George II)
  • Caroline of Brunswick, wife of George, Prince of Wales (son of King George III, acceded to throne as King George IV)
  • Alexandra of Denmark, wife Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (son of Queen Victoria, acceded to throne as King Edward VII)
  • Mary of Teck, wife of George, Prince of Wales (son of King Edward VII, acceded to throne as King George V)
  • Lady Diana Spencer, first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales (son of Queen Elizabeth II, divorced August 28, 1996)
  • Camilla Parker Bowles, second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales (son of Queen Elizabeth II), does not use the title Princess of Wales, known instead as the Duchess of Cornwall

Joan had three siblings:

Joan’s father Edmund, 1st Earl of Kent played an important role during the reign of his half-brother King Edward II, acting both as a diplomat and a military commander. Three years after King Edward II was deposed by his wife Isabella of France and her lover Roger Mortimer and Edward II and Isabella’s 15-year-old son succeeded as King Edward III, Edmund was accused of high treason on charges of having attempted to free the former king from imprisonment. It later emerged that Roger Mortimer himself was responsible for leading Edmund into the plot to free the former king, in a form of entrapment.  Edmund, 1st Earl of Kent was executed at Winchester Castle on March 19, 1330. Joan’s mother Margaret was pregnant at the time of her husband’s execution and was confined to Arundel Castle with her young children where her last child was born.

After Edmund’s execution, the nobles begged the young King Edward III to assert his independence, which he did shortly before his 18th birthday. In October of 1330, a Parliament was summoned to Nottingham Castle, and Mortimer and Isabella were seized by Edward and the nobles. Isabella begged for mercy for Mortimer, but he was accused of assuming royal power and of various other crimes and was condemned without trial and hanged. Isabella was held under a comfortable house arrest until her death in 1358. After King Edward III regained his independence from his mother and Mortimer, he took in Margaret and her children and treated them as his own family. Joan and her siblings grew up with Edward III’s children, including Edward, Prince of Wales, Joan’s future husband.

Joan’s elder brother, five-year-old Edmund, inherited the Earldom of Kent in 1331, a year after his father had been attainted. His mother petitioned King Edward III who reversed the condemnation of Edmund, 1st Earl of Kent and recognized his heir as Earl of Kent. Little Edmund 2nd Earl of Kent died shortly afterward and his infant brother John became the 3rd Earl of Kent. Joan’s mother Margaret briefly succeeded her brother as 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell in 1349, but died during an outbreak of the plague that autumn. Upon his mother’s death,  John, 3rd Earl of Kent succeeded his mother as 4th Baron Wake of Liddell. John, 3rd Earl of Kent and 4th Baron Wake of Liddell died in 1352 and his only surviving sibling, Joan became 4th Countess of Kent and 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell.

In 1340, 12-year-old Joan secretly married Thomas Holland without permission from King Edward III as was required. Thomas then left for overseas military duty and the Crusades. A year or two later, Joan was forced by her family to marry William de Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury.  Lord Salisbury entered into the marriage in good faith, without knowing that Joan had secretly married Thomas Holland. Upon returning to England in 1348, Thomas Holland declared that Joan was his wife and demanded that she be restored to him. An inquiry determined that Joan had indeed been married to Thomas Holland and that that marriage was valid, and therefore, Lord Salisbury’s marriage to Joan was invalid. In 1352, when his brother-in-law John, 3rd Earl of Kent died, Thomas Holland became Earl of Kent in right of his wife. The couple remained together for eleven years until the death of Thomas Holland on December 26, 1360.

Thomas Holland from the Bruges Garter Book, 1430/1440; Credit – Wikipedia

Joan and Thomas had five children. Through the daughters of their son Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, they are the ancestors of many prominent figures in the Wars of the Roses, including Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of King Edward IV and King Richard III), Henry Tudor (later King Henry VII) and his wife Elizabeth of York (daughter of King Edward IV), Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (the Kingmaker) and his daughter Anne Neville (wife of King Richard III). They were also ancestors of Catherine Parr, the sixth and last wife of King Henry VIII.

Joan was a widow for less than a year before she married Edward, Prince of Wales (the Black Prince), her first cousin once removed and the son and heir of King Edward III of England, on October 10, 1361 at Windsor Castle. In 1362, Edward was invested as Prince of Aquitaine, a region of France which belonged to the English crown since the marriage of Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine and King Henry II.  Joan and Edward then moved to Bordeaux, the capital of Aquitaine, where they spent the next nine years. Both of their children were born in France:

Edward of Angouleme and Joan of Kent, depicted  on the Wilton diptych, 1395; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard II of England, portrait at Westminster Abbey, mid-1390s; Credit – Wikipedia

On June 7, 1376, a week before his forty-sixth birthday, Edward, Prince of Wales died at the Palace of Westminster after suffering from an illness for ten years. His father King Edward III died a year later, on June 21, 1377, and was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson King Richard II, the surviving son of Joan and Edward.

canterbury_black-prince_england_03_08-114

Tomb of Edward, Prince of Wales at Canterbury Cathedral; Photo Credit – Susan Flantzer

Joan died at the age of 57 on August 7, 1385 at Wallingford Castle. She requested to be buried beside her first husband at the Church of the Greyfriars, a Franciscan friary in Stamford, Lincolnshire, England which was destroyed during King Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries.

Wikipedia: Joan of Kent

Works Cited
Joan. “Jeanne de Kent.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 7 Oct. 1328. Web. 3 Dec. 2016.
“Joan of Kent.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 31 Oct. 2016. Web. 3 Dec. 2016.
Williamson, David. Brewer’s British Royalty. London: Cassell, 1996. Print.

January 20: Today in Royal History

King Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

January 20, 1382 – Wedding of King Richard II of England (first marriage) and Anne of Bohemia at Westminster Abbey
Unofficial Royalty: King Richard II of England
Unofficial Royalty: Anne of Bohemia, Queen of England

January 20, 1554 – Birth of King Sebastian of Portugal at the Palace of Ribeira in Lisbon, Portugal
Wikipedia: King Sebastian of Portugal

January 20, 1649 – King Charles I of England brought to trial in Westminster Hall
Unofficial Royalty: King Charles I of England

January 20, 1666 – Death of Anne of Austria, wife of King Louis XIII of France, at the convent of Val-de-Grâce in Paris, France; buried at Saint Denis Basilica near Paris, France
Unofficial Royalty: Anne of Austria, Queen of France

January 20, 1716 – Birth of King Carlos III of Spain at the Royal Palace of Madrid in Spain
Wikipedia: King Carlos III of Spain

January 20, 1731 – Death of Prince Antonio I of Monaco, buried at Saint Nicholas Cathedral in Monaco
Wikipedia: Prince Antonio I of Monaco

January 20, 1819 – Death of King Carlos IV of Spain, in exile, at the Palazzo Barberini in Rome, Italy; buried at San Lorenzo de El Escorial in Spain
Wikipedia: King Carlos IV of Spain

January 20, 1848 – Death of King Christian VIII of Denmark at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark; buried at Roskilde Cathedral in Roskilde, Denmark
Wikipedia: King Christian VIII of Denmark

January 20, 1896 – Death of Prince Henry of Battenberg, husband of Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, at sea from malaria caught in Africa during the Ashanti War; buried at St. Mildred’s Church in Whippingham, Isle of Wight, England
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Henry of Battenberg

January 20, 1936 – Death of King George V of the United Kingdom at Sandringham House in Norfolk, England; buried at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle
Unofficial Royalty: King George V of the United Kingdom

January 20, 1965 – Birth of Sophie Rhys-Jones, wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, at Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, England
Full name: Sophie Helen
Unofficial Royalty: Sophie, Countess of Wessex

January 20, 1973 – Birth of Mathilde d’Udekem d’Acoz, wife of King Philippe of the Belgians, in Uccle, Belgium
Full name: Mathilde Marie Christine Ghislaine
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Mathilde of the Belgians

January 19: Today in Royal History

Isabella of Austria, wife of King Christian II of Denmark; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

January 19, 1526 – Death of Isabella of Austria, wife of King Christian II of Denmark, in Ghent in present-day Belgium; buried first at St Peter Church in Ghent, then in Saint Canute’s Cathedral in Odense, Denmark
Isabella was the daughter of Queen Juana of Castile and the granddaughter of King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile.  It is said that Danish Crown Prince Frederik’s elder daughter is named after her.
Wikipedia: Isabella of Austria

January 19, 1544 – Birth of King  François II of France at the Château de Fontainebleau in France
François was the first husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Wikipedia: King François II of France

January 19, 1757 – Birth of Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf, wife of Franz Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, in Saalburg-Ebersdorf, Germany
Augusta was the grandmother of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
Unofficial Royalty: Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf

January 19, 1793 – King Louis XVI of France is sentenced to death
Unofficial Royalty: King Louis XVI of France
Wikipedia: Trial of Louis XVI

January 19, 1927 – Death of Charlotte of Belgium, wife of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, at the Castle of Bouchout in Meise, Belgium; buried at the Royal Crypt in the Church of Our Lady in Laeken, Brussels, Belgium
Charlotte was a first cousin of both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.  Her father was their Uncle Leopold, the first King of the Belgians.  She married Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, the Habsburg Archduke, who was executed.
Wikipedia: Charlotte of Belgium

January 19, 1937 – Birth of Princess Birgitta of Sweden
Birgitta is the elder sister of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Birgitta of Sweden

January 19, 1943 – Birth of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, daughter of Queen Juliana, in Ottawa, Canada
Full name: Margriet Francisca
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Margriet of the Netherlands

Breaking News: Prince Louis and Princess Tessy of Luxembourg to divorce

Photo Credit –  © Cour grand-ducale de Luxembourg

The Grand Ducal Court of Luxembourg announced on January 18, 2017 that Prince Louis and Princess Tessy of Luxembourg will divorce. The press release from the Grand Ducal Court said, “Their Royal Highnesses the Grand Duke and the Grand Duchess regret to announce that Prince Louis and Princess Tessy have decided to divorce. In these painful circumstances, they rely on the understanding of all and ask to respect the privacy of the couple and their children.”

Prince Louis is the third son of the four sons and the third of the five children of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg and his wife Grand Duchess Maria Teresa.  Prince Louis and Tessy Antony had a son Gabriel in March 2006 and were married six months later on September 26, 2006. At the time of the wedding, Prince Louis relinquished the rights of succession for himself as well for any of his descendants. He retained his royal style and title, but his wife simply took on the surname ‘de Nassau’. A second son Noah was born in September 2007.  In 2009, Tessy was created HRH Princess Tessy of Luxembourg, and their sons were made HRH Prince Gabriel of Nassau and HRH Prince Noah of Nassau.

Royal News: Wednesday 18 January 2017

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Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales (The Black Prince)

by Susan Flantzer

Edward, Prince of Wales as Knight of the Order of the Garter, illustration from the Bruges Garter Book 1453; Credit -Wikipedia

Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales was born at Woodstock Palace near Oxford in Oxfordshire, England on June 15, 1330. He was the eldest of the fourteen children of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Today, Edward of Woodstock is commonly referred to as “The Black Prince” although he was not called that in his lifetime. The first appearance of the reference occurred more than 150 years after his death. It is thought it may refer to Edward’s black shield, and/or his black armor or from his brutal reputation, particularly towards the French in Aquitaine.

Edward of Woodstock was one of the seven Princes of Wales who never became King. The others are:

Edward had thirteen siblings:

In 1333, three-year-old Edward was created Earl of Chester and four years later, he was created Duke of Cornwall, the first creation of a dukedom in England. In 1343, he was created Prince of Wales.  Marriage negotiations for a bride for Edward started when he was seven-years-old. His father’s first choice was a French princess, hoping that such a marriage would break up France and Scotland’s alliance, but nothing came of this possibility. Likewise, nothing came of negotiations with King Afonso IV of Portugal or John III, Duke of Brabant for the hands of their daughters.

Queen Philippa chose her almoner, philosopher Walter Burley, as Edward’s tutor. Edward was educated with a small group of companions. One of these companions, Simon de Burley,  a relative of Walter Burley, became a life-long friend of Edward and later was trusted with the education of Edward’s son, the future King Richard II. Edward’s knightly and military training was conducted by Walter Manny, 1st Baron Manny.  Manny taught Edward the code of chivalry as well as the art of jousting. Edward participated in small tournaments and served as a page to his father at large tournaments.

Battle of Crécy from an illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart’s Chronicles; Credit – Wikipedia

Best known for his military career in the Hundred Years War, Edward accompanied his father to France in the summer of 1346 and participated in the Battle of Crécy, his first major battle, on August 26, 1346, where the English had a decisive victory. 16-year-old Edward, Prince of Wales commanded the vanguard with John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford, Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, and Sir John Chandos.  Edward was one of the 25 founding knights (the second knight after his father King Edward III) of the Order of the Garter in 1348. On September 19, 1356, Edward distinguished himself by winning a great victory at the Battle of Poitiers where he took King John II of France prisoner. Edward served as Lieutenant of Aquitaine from 1355 – 1372 and was created Prince of Aquitaine in 1362.

Edward, the Black Prince, is granted Aquitaine by his father King Edward III; Credit – Wikipedia

Edward married Joan, 4th Countess of Kent, his father’s first cousin, on October 10, 1361 at Windsor Castle.  Joan was the daughter and heiress of Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, the younger son of King Edward I of England by his second wife Margaret of France. In 1362, Edward was invested as Prince of Aquitaine, a region of France which belonged to the English crown since the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and King Henry II.  Joan and Edward then moved to Bordeaux, the capital of Aquitaine, where they spent the next nine years. Both of their children were born in France:

Edward of Angouleme and Joan of Kent, depicted on the Wilton diptych, 1395; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard II of England, portrait at Westminster Abbey, mid-1390s; Credit – Wikipedia

Around the time of the birth of his younger son, Edward was lured into an unsuccessful war on behalf of King Pedro of Castile.  Edward contracted an illness during this war that ailed him until his death in 1376. It was believed that he contracted dysentery, which killed more medieval soldiers than battle, but it is unlikely that he could survive a ten-year battle with dysentery. Other possible diagnoses include edema, nephritis, or cirrhosis. By 1371, Edward was no longer able to perform his duties as Prince of Aquitaine and returned to England. In 1372, he forced himself to attempt one final campaign in the hope of saving his father’s French possessions, but the prevailing winds off the shores of France prevented the ships from landing and the campaign was aborted.

Edward’s health was now completely shattered. On June 7, 1376, a week before his forty-sixth birthday, Edward died at the Palace of Westminster. His father King Edward III died a year later, on June 21, 1377, and was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson King Richard II, the surviving son of Edward the Black Prince. Edward had requested to be buried in the crypt at Canterbury Cathedral. However, his request was overruled and he was buried in a tomb with a bronze effigy on the south side of the shrine of Thomas Becket behind the choir. Edward’s heraldic helmet and gauntlets were placed above his tomb. Today, replicas hang above his tomb and the originals are in a glass case nearby. The epitaph inscribed around his effigy:

Such as thou art, sometime was I.
Such as I am, such shalt thou be.
I thought little on th’our of Death
So long as I enjoyed breath.
On earth I had great riches
Land, houses, great treasure, horses, money and gold.
But now a wretched captive am I,
Deep in the ground, lo here I lie.
My beauty great, is all quite gone,
My flesh is wasted to the bone.

canterbury_black-prince_england_03_08-114

Tomb of Edward the Black Prince; Photo Credit – Susan Flantzer

canterbury_black-prince_england_03_08-116

Replicas of Edward’s heraldic helmet, gauntlets, etc. above his tomb; Photo Credit – Susan Flantzer

Wikipedia: Edward the Black Prince

Works Cited
“Edward, the black prince.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2016. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.
Joelson, Annette. England’s Princes of Wales. New York: Dorset Press, 1966. Print.
Toulouse illustrée, Histoire de. “Édouard de Woodstock.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 23 June 1330. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.
Williamson, David. Brewer’s British Royalty. London: Cassell, 1996. Print.

January 18: Today in Royal History

Anna Pavlovna of Russia, wife of King Willem II of the Netherlands; Credit – Wikipedia

January 18, 1367 – Death of King Pedro I of Portugal in Estremoz, Portugal; buried at the Monastery of Alcobaça in Alcobaça, Portugal
Wikipedia: King Pedro I of Portugal

January 18, 1486 – Wedding of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, daughter of King Edward IV of England
Unofficial Royalty: King Henry VII of England
Unofficial Royalty: Elizabeth of York, Queen of England

January 18, 1701 – Friedrich III, Elector of Brandenburg, becomes King of Prussia
Wikipedia: Friedrich I, King of Prussia

January 18, 1795 – Birth of Anna Pavlovna of Russia, wife of King Willem II of the Netherlands, in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Unofficial Royalty: Anna Pavlovna of Russia, Queen of the Netherlands

January 18, 1890 – Death of King Amadeo I of Spain in Turin, Italy; buried at the Basilica of Superga in Turin, Italy
Wikipedia: King Amadeo I of Spain

January 18, 1908 – Birth of Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Västerbotten, wife of Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden and mother of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, in Gotha, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Västerbotten

January 18, 1919 – Death of Prince John of the United Kingdom, son of King George V of the United Kingdom, at Wood Farm in Wolferton, Norfolk, England; buried at Sandringham Church in Norfolk, England
Unofficial Royalty: Prince John of the United Kingdom

January 18, 1974 – Birth of Claire Louise Coombs, wife of Prince Laurent of Belgium, in Bath, England
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Claire of Belgium

January 17: Today in Royal History

Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

January 17, 1598 – Death of Tsar Fyodor I of Russia in Moscow, Russia; buried at Archangel Cathedral in the Kremlin, Moscow, Russia
Wikipedia: Tsar Fyodor I of Russia

January 17, 1746 – Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, defeats British forces at the Battle of Falkirk in Scotland
Wikipedia: Battle of Falkirk

January 17, 1870 – Birth of Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma, first wife Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria, in Rome, Italy
Unofficial Royalty: Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma

January 17, 1893 – Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii is forced to abdicate by a group of businessmen and sugar planters
Wikipedia: Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii

January 17, 1991 – Death of King Olav V of Norway at the Royal Lodge, Kongsseteren in Norway; buried at the Akershus Fortress in Oslo, Norway
Unofficial Royalty: King Olav V of Norway

Philippa of England, Queen of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway

by Susan Flantzer

Philippa by Reinhold Callmander on a window above her grave, 1890s; By Mariusz Paździora (photo); Reinhold Callmander (painting) – Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6100584

Philippa of England was the second daughter and the sixth and youngest child of King Henry IV of England and his first wife Mary de Bohun, a rich heiress. Mary never became Queen of England because she died before her husband became King, shortly after Philippa’s birth at Peterborough Castle on June 4, 1394. When Philippa was five years old, her father deposed his first cousin King Richard II and became King Henry IV. Not much is known about Philippa’s childhood other than that she attended her father’s second marriage in 1403 to Joan of Navarre and that she made a pilgrimage to Canterbury in the same year. She mostly lived at Berkhamsted Castle and Windsor Castle.

Philippa had five siblings. Her father’s second marriage was childless.

Early in his reign, Henry IV tried to negotiate an alliance between England and the Kalmar Union, which united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway into one kingdom, with Queen Margrethe I of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. He suggested a marriage between two of his children, his eldest son and heir Henry (the future King Henry V) and Philippa, with Margrethe I’s great niece and great nephew, Catherine of Pomerania and Eric of Pomerania. Terms for the marriages were not agreed upon at that time, however, in 1405, a marriage between Philippa and Eric of Pomerania, who was the heir to his great aunt’s throne, was arranged. Eleven-year-old Philippa was married by proxy to 24-year-old Eric on November 26, 1405 at Westminster Abbey in London. Philippa was formerly proclaimed Queen of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway on December 8. 1405 in the presence of the Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian ambassadors.

In August of 1406, Philippa left England to travel to Sweden and married Eric of Pomerania in person on October 26, 1406 at Lund Cathedral in Lund, Sweden. Documentation from the wedding indicates that Philippa wore a tunic with a cloak in white silk bordered with gray squirrel and ermine, making her the first documented princess to wear a white wedding dress. On November 1, 1406, Philippa was crowned Queen of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.

Eric of Pomerania; Credit – Wikipedia

Philippa was actively involved in state affairs. She was given large tracts of land in Sweden as her dower lands and acted as her husband’s representative in Sweden, where she spent much time. Her particular interest in Sweden was Vadstena Abbey, which came to be a refuge for her and a base whenever she was in Sweden. Philippa was regent for Denmark, Sweden, and Norway during Eric’s pilgrimage to Jerusalem from 1423 to 1425. Even after Eric returned from his pilgrimage, Philippa continued her commitment to the kingdom. She resolved disputes among her subjects, and in 1428 organized she successfully defended Copenhagen against attacking forces from the Hanseatic League cities.

After 23 years of marriage, Philippa gave birth, for the first and last time, to a stillborn boy in 1429. Her health deteriorated after the stillbirth and during a visit to Vadstena Abbey, Philippa died on January 5, 1430 at the age of 35. Her death was a great loss to both her husband Eric and the monarchy. She was buried in St. Anna’s Chapel, which she had built at the Vadstena Abbey church. In Philippa’s memory, Eric gave a generous sum of money to the abbey. In return, he demanded that the abbey employ ten priests who would pray and sing psalms around the clock for the salvation of Philippa’s soul. It turned out to be a very stressful “gift” for the abbey.

Gravestones of Queen Philippa at Vadnesta Abbey; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

Wikipedia: Philippa of England

Works Cited
“Philippa of England.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 7 Sept. 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.
“Philippa af England.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.
Williamson, David. Brewer’s British Royalty. London: Cassell, 1996. Print.

January 16: Today in Royal History

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

January 16, 1245 – Birth of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster and Leicester, son of King Henry III of England, at London, England
Wikipedia: Edmund Crouchback

January 16, 1942 – Death of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria, at Bagshot Park in Surrey, England; buried at Frogmore, Windsor
Arthur died at age 91.  Two of his great grandchildren are current monarchs: Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught

January 16, 1979 – Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi flees Iran
BBC: 1979: Shah of Iran flees into exile
Wikipedia: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi