Royal News: Wednesday 18 January 2017

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Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales (The Black Prince)

by Susan Flantzer

Edward, Prince of Wales as Knight of the Order of the Garter, illustration from the Bruges Garter Book 1453; Credit -Wikipedia

Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales was born at Woodstock Palace near Oxford in Oxfordshire, England on June 15, 1330. He was the eldest of the fourteen children of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Today, Edward of Woodstock is commonly referred to as “The Black Prince” although he was not called that in his lifetime. The first appearance of the reference occurred more than 150 years after his death. It is thought it may refer to Edward’s black shield, and/or his black armor or from his brutal reputation, particularly towards the French in Aquitaine.

Edward of Woodstock was one of the seven Princes of Wales who never became King. The others are:

Edward had thirteen siblings:

In 1333, three-year-old Edward was created Earl of Chester and four years later, he was created Duke of Cornwall, the first creation of a dukedom in England. In 1343, he was created Prince of Wales.  Marriage negotiations for a bride for Edward started when he was seven-years-old. His father’s first choice was a French princess, hoping that such a marriage would break up France and Scotland’s alliance, but nothing came of this possibility. Likewise, nothing came of negotiations with King Afonso IV of Portugal or John III, Duke of Brabant for the hands of their daughters.

Queen Philippa chose her almoner, philosopher Walter Burley, as Edward’s tutor. Edward was educated with a small group of companions. One of these companions, Simon de Burley,  a relative of Walter Burley, became a life-long friend of Edward and later was trusted with the education of Edward’s son, the future King Richard II. Edward’s knightly and military training was conducted by Walter Manny, 1st Baron Manny.  Manny taught Edward the code of chivalry as well as the art of jousting. Edward participated in small tournaments and served as a page to his father at large tournaments.

Battle of Crécy from an illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart’s Chronicles; Credit – Wikipedia

Best known for his military career in the Hundred Years War, Edward accompanied his father to France in the summer of 1346 and participated in the Battle of Crécy, his first major battle, on August 26, 1346, where the English had a decisive victory. 16-year-old Edward, Prince of Wales commanded the vanguard with John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford, Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, and Sir John Chandos.  Edward was one of the 25 founding knights (the second knight after his father King Edward III) of the Order of the Garter in 1348. On September 19, 1356, Edward distinguished himself by winning a great victory at the Battle of Poitiers where he took King John II of France prisoner. Edward served as Lieutenant of Aquitaine from 1355 – 1372 and was created Prince of Aquitaine in 1362.

Edward, the Black Prince, is granted Aquitaine by his father King Edward III; Credit – Wikipedia

Edward married Joan, 4th Countess of Kent, his father’s first cousin, on October 10, 1361 at Windsor Castle.  Joan was the daughter and heiress of Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, the younger son of King Edward I of England by his second wife Margaret of France. In 1362, Edward was invested as Prince of Aquitaine, a region of France which belonged to the English crown since the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and King Henry II.  Joan and Edward then moved to Bordeaux, the capital of Aquitaine, where they spent the next nine years. Both of their children were born in France:

Edward of Angouleme and Joan of Kent, depicted on the Wilton diptych, 1395; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard II of England, portrait at Westminster Abbey, mid-1390s; Credit – Wikipedia

Around the time of the birth of his younger son, Edward was lured into an unsuccessful war on behalf of King Pedro of Castile.  Edward contracted an illness during this war that ailed him until his death in 1376. It was believed that he contracted dysentery, which killed more medieval soldiers than battle, but it is unlikely that he could survive a ten-year battle with dysentery. Other possible diagnoses include edema, nephritis, or cirrhosis. By 1371, Edward was no longer able to perform his duties as Prince of Aquitaine and returned to England. In 1372, he forced himself to attempt one final campaign in the hope of saving his father’s French possessions, but the prevailing winds off the shores of France prevented the ships from landing and the campaign was aborted.

Edward’s health was now completely shattered. On June 7, 1376, a week before his forty-sixth birthday, Edward died at the Palace of Westminster. His father King Edward III died a year later, on June 21, 1377, and was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson King Richard II, the surviving son of Edward the Black Prince. Edward had requested to be buried in the crypt at Canterbury Cathedral. However, his request was overruled and he was buried in a tomb with a bronze effigy on the south side of the shrine of Thomas Becket behind the choir. Edward’s heraldic helmet and gauntlets were placed above his tomb. Today, replicas hang above his tomb and the originals are in a glass case nearby. The epitaph inscribed around his effigy:

Such as thou art, sometime was I.
Such as I am, such shalt thou be.
I thought little on th’our of Death
So long as I enjoyed breath.
On earth I had great riches
Land, houses, great treasure, horses, money and gold.
But now a wretched captive am I,
Deep in the ground, lo here I lie.
My beauty great, is all quite gone,
My flesh is wasted to the bone.

canterbury_black-prince_england_03_08-114

Tomb of Edward the Black Prince; Photo Credit – Susan Flantzer

canterbury_black-prince_england_03_08-116

Replicas of Edward’s heraldic helmet, gauntlets, etc. above his tomb; Photo Credit – Susan Flantzer

Wikipedia: Edward the Black Prince

Works Cited
“Edward, the black prince.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2016. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.
Joelson, Annette. England’s Princes of Wales. New York: Dorset Press, 1966. Print.
Toulouse illustrée, Histoire de. “Édouard de Woodstock.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 23 June 1330. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.
Williamson, David. Brewer’s British Royalty. London: Cassell, 1996. Print.

January 18: Today in Royal History

Anna Pavlovna of Russia, wife of King Willem II of the Netherlands; Credit – Wikipedia

January 18, 1367 – Death of King Pedro I of Portugal in Estremoz, Portugal; buried at the Monastery of Alcobaça in Alcobaça, Portugal
Wikipedia: King Pedro I of Portugal

January 18, 1486 – Wedding of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, daughter of King Edward IV of England
Unofficial Royalty: King Henry VII of England
Unofficial Royalty: Elizabeth of York, Queen of England

January 18, 1701 – Friedrich III, Elector of Brandenburg, becomes King of Prussia
Wikipedia: Friedrich I, King of Prussia

January 18, 1795 – Birth of Anna Pavlovna of Russia, wife of King Willem II of the Netherlands, in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Unofficial Royalty: Anna Pavlovna of Russia, Queen of the Netherlands

January 18, 1890 – Death of King Amadeo I of Spain in Turin, Italy; buried at the Basilica of Superga in Turin, Italy
Wikipedia: King Amadeo I of Spain

January 18, 1908 – Birth of Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Västerbotten, wife of Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden and mother of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, in Gotha, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Västerbotten

January 18, 1919 – Death of Prince John of the United Kingdom, son of King George V of the United Kingdom, at Wood Farm in Wolferton, Norfolk, England; buried at Sandringham Church in Norfolk, England
Unofficial Royalty: Prince John of the United Kingdom

January 18, 1974 – Birth of Claire Louise Coombs, wife of Prince Laurent of Belgium, in Bath, England
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Claire of Belgium

Royal News: Tuesday 17 January 2017

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January 17: Today in Royal History

Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

January 17, 1598 – Death of Tsar Fyodor I of Russia in Moscow, Russia; buried at Archangel Cathedral in the Kremlin, Moscow, Russia
Wikipedia: Tsar Fyodor I of Russia

January 17, 1746 – Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, defeats British forces at the Battle of Falkirk in Scotland
Wikipedia: Battle of Falkirk

January 17, 1870 – Birth of Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma, first wife Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria, in Rome, Italy
Unofficial Royalty: Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma

January 17, 1893 – Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii is forced to abdicate by a group of businessmen and sugar planters
Wikipedia: Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii

January 17, 1991 – Death of King Olav V of Norway at the Royal Lodge, Kongsseteren in Norway; buried at the Akershus Fortress in Oslo, Norway
Unofficial Royalty: King Olav V of Norway

Royal News: Monday, 16 January 2017

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Philippa of England, Queen of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway

by Susan Flantzer

Philippa by Reinhold Callmander on a window above her grave, 1890s; By Mariusz Paździora (photo); Reinhold Callmander (painting) – Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6100584

Philippa of England was the second daughter and the sixth and youngest child of King Henry IV of England and his first wife Mary de Bohun, a rich heiress. Mary never became Queen of England because she died before her husband became King, shortly after Philippa’s birth at Peterborough Castle on June 4, 1394. When Philippa was five years old, her father deposed his first cousin King Richard II and became King Henry IV. Not much is known about Philippa’s childhood other than that she attended her father’s second marriage in 1403 to Joan of Navarre and that she made a pilgrimage to Canterbury in the same year. She mostly lived at Berkhamsted Castle and Windsor Castle.

Philippa had five siblings. Her father’s second marriage was childless.

Early in his reign, Henry IV tried to negotiate an alliance between England and the Kalmar Union, which united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway into one kingdom, with Queen Margrethe I of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. He suggested a marriage between two of his children, his eldest son and heir Henry (the future King Henry V) and Philippa, with Margrethe I’s great niece and great nephew, Catherine of Pomerania and Eric of Pomerania. Terms for the marriages were not agreed upon at that time, however, in 1405, a marriage between Philippa and Eric of Pomerania, who was the heir to his great aunt’s throne, was arranged. Eleven-year-old Philippa was married by proxy to 24-year-old Eric on November 26, 1405 at Westminster Abbey in London. Philippa was formerly proclaimed Queen of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway on December 8. 1405 in the presence of the Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian ambassadors.

In August of 1406, Philippa left England to travel to Sweden and married Eric of Pomerania in person on October 26, 1406 at Lund Cathedral in Lund, Sweden. Documentation from the wedding indicates that Philippa wore a tunic with a cloak in white silk bordered with gray squirrel and ermine, making her the first documented princess to wear a white wedding dress. On November 1, 1406, Philippa was crowned Queen of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.

Eric of Pomerania; Credit – Wikipedia

Philippa was actively involved in state affairs. She was given large tracts of land in Sweden as her dower lands and acted as her husband’s representative in Sweden, where she spent much time. Her particular interest in Sweden was Vadstena Abbey, which came to be a refuge for her and a base whenever she was in Sweden. Philippa was regent for Denmark, Sweden, and Norway during Eric’s pilgrimage to Jerusalem from 1423 to 1425. Even after Eric returned from his pilgrimage, Philippa continued her commitment to the kingdom. She resolved disputes among her subjects, and in 1428 organized she successfully defended Copenhagen against attacking forces from the Hanseatic League cities.

After 23 years of marriage, Philippa gave birth, for the first and last time, to a stillborn boy in 1429. Her health deteriorated after the stillbirth and during a visit to Vadstena Abbey, Philippa died on January 5, 1430 at the age of 35. Her death was a great loss to both her husband Eric and the monarchy. She was buried in St. Anna’s Chapel, which she had built at the Vadstena Abbey church. In Philippa’s memory, Eric gave a generous sum of money to the abbey. In return, he demanded that the abbey employ ten priests who would pray and sing psalms around the clock for the salvation of Philippa’s soul. It turned out to be a very stressful “gift” for the abbey.

Gravestones of Queen Philippa at Vadnesta Abbey; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

Wikipedia: Philippa of England

Works Cited
“Philippa of England.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 7 Sept. 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.
“Philippa af England.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.
Williamson, David. Brewer’s British Royalty. London: Cassell, 1996. Print.

January 16: Today in Royal History

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

January 16, 1245 – Birth of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster and Leicester, son of King Henry III of England, at London, England
Wikipedia: Edmund Crouchback

January 16, 1942 – Death of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria, at Bagshot Park in Surrey, England; buried at Frogmore, Windsor
Arthur died at age 91.  Two of his great grandchildren are current monarchs: Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught

January 16, 1979 – Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi flees Iran
BBC: 1979: Shah of Iran flees into exile
Wikipedia: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

“Victoria” on PBS in the USA and Unofficial Royalty’s Queen Victoria Resources

Queen Victoria replica by Sir George Hayter, oil on canvas, 1863 (1838), NPG 1250 © National Portrait Gallery, London

The much-anticipated series about Queen Victoria, Victoria, will begin an eight-week run on Masterpiece on PBS stations in the United States on Sunday, January 15, 2017 and continue through March 5, 2017. Check your local PBS station for the dates and time. The series was shown on ITV in the United Kingdom from August 28, 2016 through October 9, 2016. Jenna Coleman, who was in Doctor Who for three years, plays Queen Victoria. ITV has renewed Victoria for a second season, so we can expect to see the second season sometime in the future on PBS.

Here at Unofficial Royalty, we have a number of Queen Victoria resources. Please check out the links below. Enjoy!

Royal News: Sunday 15 January 2017

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