Royal News: Sunday 30 April 2017

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Royal Birthdays & Anniversaries: April 30-May 6

Princess Benedikte of Denmark; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

73rd birthday of Princess Benedikte of Denmark, daughter of King Frederik IX, sister of Queen Margrethe II; born at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark on April 29, 1944
Full name: Benedikte Astrid Ingeborg Ingrid
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Benedikte

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 Maud Angelica Behn in the black sweater with her sisters

14th birthday of Maud Angelica Behn, daughter of Princess Märtha Louise of Norway; born at the Rikshospitalet in Oslo, Norway on April 29, 2003
Unofficial Royalty: Maud Angelica Behn (scroll down)

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 Infanta Sofia of Spain

10th birthday of Infanta Sofia of Spain, daughter of King Felipe VI of Spain; born at the Ruber International Clinic in Madrid on April 29, 2007
Full name: Sofía de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Ortiz
Unofficial Royalty: Infanta Sofia of Spain

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Prince William and Catherine Middleton, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

6th wedding anniversary of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton; married at Westminster Abbey in London on April 29, 2011
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
Unofficial Royalty: Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Unofficial Royalty: Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

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Pieter van Vollenhoven, Photo Credit – Wikipedia

78th birthday of Pieter van Vollenhoven, husband of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands; born in Schiedam, the Netherlands on April 30, 1939
Wikipedia: Pieter van Vollenhoven

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King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

71st birthday of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; born at Haga Palace, Sweden on April 30, 1946
Full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus
Unofficial Royalty: King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden

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Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg with his wife, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

54th birthday of Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, son of Grand Duke Jean; born at Betzdorf Castle on May 1, 1963
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg

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Lady Sarah Chatto, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

53rd birthday of Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, daughter of Princess Margaret of the United Kingdom; born at Kensington Palace in London on May 1, 1964
Full name: Sarah Frances Elizabeth
Unofficial Royalty: Lady Sarah Chatto

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 Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

2nd birthday of Princess Charlotte of Cambridge, daughter of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge; born at St. Mary’s Hospital in Paddington, London, England on May 2, 2015
Full name: Charlotte Elizabeth Diana
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

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Princess Haya bint Hussein, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

43rd birthday of Princess Haya bint Hussein, daughter of King Hussein of Jordan and his third wife Queen Alia al-Hussein; born in Amman, Jordan on May 3, 1974
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Haya bint Hussein

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Pauline Ducruet, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

23rd birthday of Pauline Ducruet, daughter of Princess Stephanie of Monaco; born at Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace in Monte Carlo, Monaco on May 4, 1994
Full name: Pauline Grace Maguy
Wikipedia: Pauline Ducruet

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8th birthday of Prince Henrik of Denmark, son of Prince Joachim; born at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark on May 4, 2009
Full name: Henrik Carl Joachim Alain
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Henrik of Denmark

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April 30: Today in Royal History

Princess Mary, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom at age 80, on right, with Queen Victoria, Princess Alice and the Prince of Wales (future Edward VII); Photo Credit – Wikipedia

April 30, 1245 – Birth of King Philip III of France in Poissy, France
Wikipedia: King Philip III of France

April 30, 1290 – Wedding of Joan of Acre, daughter of King Edward I of England, and Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester and 7th Earl of Hertford, at Westminster Abbey
Wikipedia: Joan of Acre
Wikipedia: Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester and 7th Earl of Hertford

April 30, 1553 – Birth of Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, wife of King Henri III of France, in Nomeny, France
Wikipedia: Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, Queen of France

April 30, 1632 – Death of King Sigismund III Vasa of Sweden at Warsaw, Poland; buried at the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Stanisław and Vaclav in Warsaw, Poland
Wikipedia: King Sigismund III Vasa of Sweden

April 30, 1662 – Birth of Queen Mary II of England at St. James’ Palace in London, England
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Mary II of England

April 30, 1857 – Death of Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom, at Gloucester House in Piccadilly, London, England; buried at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle
Mary was a great favorite with all the members of the royal family particularly with her niece Queen Victoria.  Mary died at age 81, the last survivor of her parents’ 15 children.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester

April 30, 1882 – Death of Marie of Waldeck-Pyrmont, wife of King William II of Württemberg, in Stuttgart, Württemberg (Germany); buried at the Old Cemetery in Ludwigsburg, Württemberg (Germany)
Wikipedia: Marie of Waldeck-Pyrmont, Princess of Württemberg

April 30, 1909 – Birth of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, at The Hague, Netherlands
April 30, 1980 – Abdication of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands; her daughter Beatrix becomes queen
Full name: Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Juliana of the Netherlands

April 30, 1939 – Birth of Pieter van Vollenhoven, husband of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, in Schiedam, Netherlands
Wikipedia: Pieter van Vollenhoven

April 30, 1946 – Birth of King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden at Haga Palace in Solna, Sweden
Full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus
Unofficial Royalty: King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden

April 30, 1991 – Death of Ghislaine Marie Francoise Dommanget, wife of Prince Louis II of Monaco; buried at the Cimetiere de Passy in Paris, France
Unofficial Royalty: Ghislaine Marie Francoise Dommanget, Princess of Monaco

April 30, 2013 – Abdication of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands; her son Willem-Alexander becomes King
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands
Unofficial Royalty: King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Royal News: Saturday 29 April 2017

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April 29: Today in Royal History

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton; Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

April 29, 1818 – Birth of Tsar Alexander II of Russia at the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia
Unofficial Royalty: Tsar Alexander II of Russia

April 29, 1901 – Birth of Emperor Hirohito of Japan in the Aoyama Palace in Tokyo, Japan
Wikipedia: Emperor Hirohito of Japan

April 29, 1944 – Birth of Princess Benedikte of Denmark, daughter of King Frederik IX of Denmark, sister of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark
Full name: Benedikte Astrid Ingeborg Ingrid
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Benedikte of Denmark

April 29, 1964 – Wedding of Princess Irene of the Netherlands and Prince Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma at the Borghese Chapel at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, Italy
The couple divorced in 1981.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Irene of the Netherlands
Wikipedia: Prince Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma

April 29, 2003 – Birth of Maud Angelica Behn, daughter of Princess Märtha Louise of Norway, in Oslo, Norway
Unofficial Royalty: Maud Angelica Behn (scroll down)

April 29, 2007 – Birth of Infanta Sofia of Spain, daughter of King Felipe VI of Spain, at the Ruber International Clinic in Madrid, Spain
Full name: Sofía de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Ortiz
Unofficial Royalty: Infanta Sofia of Spain

April 29, 2011 – Wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
Unofficial Royalty: Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Unofficial Royalty: Catherine Middleton, Duchess of Cambridge

Royal News: Friday 28 April 2017

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Elizabeth de Burgh, Queen of Scots

by Susan Flantzer

Credit – Wikipedia

Born in Ireland around 1284, Elizabeth de Burgh was the second wife of Robert I (the Bruce), King of Scots and his only Queen Consort. Robert’s first wife Isabella of Mar died in childbirth before Robert became king. Elizabeth was the third of the ten children of Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster and 3rd Baron of Connaught and his wife Margaret, possibly his cousin Margaret de Burgh or Margaret de Guines.

Elizabeth had nine siblings:

Elizabeth’s father Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster and 3rd Baron of Connaught was one of the most powerful Irish nobles of his time. He was the friend and ally of King Edward I of England and ranked first among the Earls of Ireland. He played a leading role among the Anglo-Irish nobility, supporting the expansion of the Norman barons in Ireland at the expense of the ancestral territories of the Irish Gaelic. Despite the marriage of his daughter to Robert the Bruce, that did not stop him leading his forces from Ireland to support England’s King Edward I in his Scottish campaigns.

Through her father, Elizabeth was the descendant of the Irish Kings of Munster, Kings of Thomond, and also of the famous Brian Boru, High King of Ireland. Her father also had a line of descent from William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, called William the Marshal, the Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman who served five English kings: Henry II, his sons Henry the Young King, Richard I, John, and John’s son Henry III.

Richard’s great granddaughter Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster married Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence who was the third, but second surviving son of King Edward III of England and was one of the two people on whom the House of York would base its claim to the English throne during the Wars of the Roses.

de Burgh Arms; Credit – By Sodacan – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27269486

Elizabeth probably met Robert the Bruce, who was then the Earl of Carrick, at the English court. Today, Earl of Carrick is one of the titles of the eldest living son and heir-apparent of the British sovereign. Along with Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick was one of the traditional titles of the eldest living son and heir-apparent of the throne of Scotland. When King James VI of Scotland also became King James I of England after the death of Queen Elizabeth I, the Scottish titles came along with him.

Elizabeth and Robert married at Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex, England in 1302 when Elizabeth would have been about 18-years-old and Robert would have been about 28-years-old. This was the second marriage for Robert. His first wife Isabella of Mar died soon after giving birth to a daughter named Marjorie Bruce on December 12, 1296. Marjorie married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland.  It was Marjorie’s son who succeeded to the Scots throne as King Robert II, the first monarch of the House of Stewart, after the death of Elizabeth and Robert the Bruce’s childless son King David II.

Robert the Bruce and Elizabeth de Burgh from Seton Armorial in the Nation Library of Scotland (MS Acc. 9309); Credit – Wikipedia

In 1302, when Elizabeth married Robert the Bruce, Scotland had been in political turmoil for some time. Alexander III, King of Scots (reigned 1249 – 1286) had only two surviving children, a son Alexander and a daughter Margaret who married King Eric II of Norway. Margaret of Scotland, Queen of Norway died in childbirth in 1283, giving birth to her only child Margaret, Maid of Norway. In 1284, the earls and barons of Scotland recognized Margaret, Maid of Norway as the heir to the throne of her grandfather King Alexander III of Scotland if he died without a male heir. Later that year, Alexander III’s 20-year-old Alexander died. When Alexander III died in 1286, his three-year-old granddaughter was the heir to his throne. The earls, barons, and clerics of Scotland met to select the Guardians of Scotland who would rule the kingdom for the rightful heir. In 1290, while on her way to Scotland, Margaret, Maid of Norway died.

The death of Margaret, Maid of Norway began a two-year interregnum in Scotland caused by the succession crisis. With Margaret’s death, the line of William I (the Lion), King of Scots became extinct and there was no obvious heir by primogeniture. Fifteen candidates presented themselves as candidates for the throne of Scotland.  The most prominent were John Balliol, great-grandson of William I’s younger brother David, Earl of Huntingdon, and Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, David of Huntingdon’s grandson and the grandfather of Elizabeth’s husband.

The Scottish lords invited King Edward I of England to arbitrate the claims. Edward I agreed but forced the Scots to swear allegiance to him as their overlord. In 1292, it was decided that John Balliol should become King of Scots. After John Balliol became King, Robert, 5th Lord of Annandale resigned the lordship of Annandale and his claim to the throne to his eldest son Robert de Brus, the father of Elizabeth’s husband. Around the same time, Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale’s wife Marjorie, Countess of Carrick died and the Earldom of Carrick, which Robert had ruled jure uxoris (by right of his wife), devolved upon their eldest son, also called Robert, Elizabeth’s husband. John Balliol proved weak and incapable, and in 1296 was forced to abdicate by Edward I, who then attempted to annex Scotland into the Kingdom of England. For ten years, there was no monarch of Scotland.

The Scots refused to tolerate English rule and the result was the Wars of Scottish Independence, a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England, first led by William Wallace and after his execution, led by Robert the Bruce, Elizabeth’s husband. Robert the Bruce as Earl of Carrick and 7th Lord of Annandale, held estates and property in Scotland, a barony and some minor properties in England, and a strong claim to the throne of Scotland

On February 10, 1306, Robert the Bruce and his supporters killed a rival for the throne, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Scotland. The bad blood between the two men went far back, and they had found it impossible to work together as Guardians of the Realm. Shortly after, Robert and his followers went to Scone, the traditional coronation site of the Kings of Scots. On March 27, 1306, Robert the Bruce was proclaimed Robert I, King of Scots and the crown was placed on his head by Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan “in the presence and with the consent of four bishops, five earls, and with the consent of the people.” According to tradition, the ceremony of crowning the monarch was performed by a representative of Clan MacDuff.

Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, crowns Robert the Bruce at Scone in 1306 from a modern tableau at Edinburgh Castle; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

And so Elizabeth de Burgh was now Queen of Scots. However, she did not think she would be queen for long because she feared her husband would be defeated by Edward I. She supposedly said, “Alas, we are but king and queen of the May! ” Both Robert the Bruce and John Comyn had swore fealty to King Edward I of England. When Edward I heard that John Comyn had been murdered, he vowed “by the God of Heaven and these swans” to avenge Comyn’s death and the treachery of the Scots. On his demand, his knights took a similar oath, and they were sent off to Scotland to seek revenge.

In Scotland, Robert I, King of Scots was already engaged in a civil war with the family and friends of the murdered John Comyn. His coronation had given him some legitimacy, but his position was very uncertain. By the middle of June 1306, the English were in Perth, Scotland and were joined by supporters of John Comyn. Robert, abiding by the conventions of feudal warfare, invited the English commander to leave the walls of Perth and join him in battle, but the English commander declined to do so. Robert, believing that the English refusal to accept his challenge was a sign of weakness, moved his forces a few miles to nearby Methven, where he made camp for the night. Before dawn on June 19, 1306, Robert’s army was taken by surprise and almost destroyed. Robert barely escaped and fled with a few followers to the Scottish Highlands.

Elizabeth was not so lucky. After the Battle of Methven, under the protection of his brother Niall, Robert sent Elizabeth, his daughter Marjorie from his first marriage, his sisters Mary and Christina and Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan (who had crowned him) to Kildrummy Castle, the seat of the Earls of Mar, the family of his first wife Isabella of Mar. The English besieged Kildrummy Castle and Niall Bruce and all the men of the castle were hanged, drawn, and quartered. However, the women had escaped and sought sanctuary at St. Duthac’s Chapel in Tain, Scotland. The sanctuary was breached by William, Earl of Ross who had the women arrested and handed over to the English.

King Edward I of England sent his hostages to different places in England. Marjorie went to the convent at Watton, Yorkshire and her aunt Christina Bruce was sent to another convent. Marjorie’s aunt Mary Bruce and Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan were imprisoned in wooden cages and exposed to public view. Mary’s cage was at Roxburgh Castle and Isabella’s was at Berwick Castle. Marjorie, Mary, and Christina were finally set free around 1314 – 1315, probably in exchange for English noblemen captured after the Battle of Bannockburn in June 1314. There is no mention of Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan in the records, so she probably died in captivity.

 The punishment of Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan

Queen Elizabeth’s punishment was lighter than that of the other women because King Edward I needed the support of her father, the powerful Earl of Ulster. She was imprisoned for eight years by the English and was moved around quite a bit:

After the Scots’ victory at the Battle of Bannockburn where they routed the English in June 1314, Elizabeth was moved to York while prisoner exchange talks took place and where she had an audience with King Edward II of England who had succeeded his father in 1307. Finally, in November 1314, she was moved to Carlisle, close to the Scots border, just before the exchange and her return to Scotland.  Because of the turmoil in Scotland and Elizabeth’s imprisonment, Robert and Elizabeth did not have any children until after her return to Scotland in 1314.

Elizabeth and Robert had four children:

  • Margaret (born between 1315 and 1323 – March 30, 1346), William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland, had one son John who died of the plague at age 20, Margaret died in childbirth
  • Matilda (born between 1315 and 1323 – July 30, 1353), married Thomas Isaac, had two daughters
  • David II, King of Scots (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371), twin of John, married (1) Joan of The Tower, daughter of King Edward II of England, no issue (2) Margaret Drummond, no issue
  • John (March 5, 1324 – before 1327), younger twin of David, died young

Elizabeth died on October 27, 1327 at Cullen Castle in Banffshire, Scotland, aged about 43-years-old. She was buried at Dunfermline Abbey in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, the resting place of many Kings and Queens of Scots. Robert I, King of Scots died 18 months later and was buried next to his wife. In 1560, Dunfermline Abbey was sacked by the Calvinists during the Scottish Reformation and Elizabeth and Robert’s tomb was destroyed. During construction work on the new abbey in 1819, Robert’s coffin was discovered and then Elizabeth’s coffin was rediscovered in 1917. Both coffins were re-interred in the new abbey.

Victorian brass plate covering the tomb of Robert Bruce and Elizabeth de Burgh; Photo Credit – By Otter – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5117548

Wikipedia: Elizabeth de Burgh

Works Cited

  • Ashley, Michael. British Kings & Queens. 1st ed. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1998. Print.
  • “Battle Of Methven”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 3 Apr. 2017.
  • Dodson, Aidan. The Royal Tombs Of Great Britain. 1st ed. London: Duckworth, 2004. Print.
  • “Elizabeth De Burgh”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 3 Apr. 2017.
  • “Richard Óg De Burgh, 2Nd Earl Of Ulster”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 3
  • “Robert The Bruce”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 3 Apr. 2017.
  • Williamson, David. Brewer’s British Royalty. London: Cassell, 1996. Print.

April 28: Today in Royal History

King Edward IV of England; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

April 28, 1442 – Birth of King Edward IV of England in Rouen, France
Unofficial Royalty: King Edward IV of England

April 28, 1950 – Wedding of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and Sirikit Kitiyakara at Srapathum Palace in Bangkok, Thailand
Unofficial Royalty: King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand
Unofficial Royalty: Sirikit Kitiyakara, Queen of Thailand
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and Sirikit Kitiyakara

April 28, 1964 – Birth of Lady Helen Windsor, daughter of Prince George, Duke of Kent, at Coppins, a country house in Iver, Buckinghamshire, England
Full name: Helen Marina Lucy
Wikipedia: Lady Helen Windsor

Royal News: Thursday 27 April 2017

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Luxembourg

Monaco

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Netherlands

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United Kingdom

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April 27: Today in Royal History

Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Cassel, wife of King Christian V of Denmark; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

April 27, 1404 – Death of Philip II (the Bold), Duke of Burgundy
Wikipedia: Philip II (the Bold), Duke of Burgundy

April 27, 1650 – Birth of Princess Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel, wife of King Christian V of Denmark, in Kassel, Hesse, Germany
Wikipedia: Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel. Queen of Denmark

April 27, 1806 – Birth of Princess Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, fourth wife of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, in Le Havre, France
Unofficial Royalty: Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain

April 27, 1848 – Birth of King Otto I of Bavaria at The Residence in Munich, Bavaria (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: King Otto I of Bavaria

April 27, 1882 – Wedding of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, son of Queen Victoria, and Princess Helena of Waldeck-Pyrmont at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Helena of Waldeck-Pyrmont, Duchess of Albany
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Prince Leopold and Princess Helena of Waldeck-Pyrmont

April 27, 1931 – Death of Prince Albert, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, grandson of Queen Victoria, in Primkenau, Germany (now in Poland)
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Albert, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein

April 27, 1967 – Birth of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, at the University Medical Center in Utrecht, the Netherlands
Full name: Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand
Unofficial Royalty: King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands