Royal News: Tuesday 21 February 2017

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February 21: Today in Royal History

King James I of Scotland; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

February 21, 1437 – Assassination of King James I of Scotland at the Monastery of the Friars Preachers in Perth, Scotland; buried at the Carthusian Monastery in Perth, Scotland
Wikipedia: King James I of Scotland

February 21, 1462 – Birth of Joanna of Castile, Queen of Portugal
Wikipedia: Joanna of Castile, Queen of Portugal

February 21, 1499 – Birth of Edmund, Duke of Somerset, son of King Henry VII of England, at Greenwich Palace in London, England
Prince Edmund died in June, 1500.
Wikipedia: Edmund Tudor

February 21, 1584 – Wedding of King Johan III of Sweden (2nd marriage) and Gunilla Bielke
Wikipedia: King Johan III of Sweden
Wikipedia: Gunilla Bielke

February 21, 1728 – Birth of Tsar Peter III of Russia in Kiel, in the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp
Born: Karl Peter Ulrich of Holstein-Gottorp, grandson of Peter the Great via his eldest daughter Anna Petrovna
Peter married Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst (the future Catherine the Great) and succeeded to the Russian throne upon the death of his aunt Empress Elizabeth.  He reigned for six months, was overthrown by his wife, and subsequently killed.  If Tsar Paul was not his son, but rather the son of Catherine’s lover Sergei Saltykov, Peter may have been the last true Romanov to sit upon the throne.
Wikipedia: Tsar Peter III of Russia

February 21, 1816 – Wedding of King Willem II of the Netherlands and Anna Pavlovna of Russia
Unofficial Royalty: King Willem II of the Netherlands
Unofficial Royalty: Anna Pavlovna of Russia

February 21, 1937 – Birth of King Harald V of Norway at the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, Asker, near Oslo, Norway
Unofficial Royalty: King Harald V of Norway

February 21, 1980 – Birth of Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, Dragon King of Bhutan, at Dechencholing Palace in Thimphu, Bhutan
Unofficial Royalty: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck of Bhutan

Royal News: Monday, 20 February 2017

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Japan
Inside the Games: Crown Prince of Japan declares Sapporo 2017 open with royal approval

Norway
Norway Today: King and Queen anniversary celebrated with sporty stamps
Norway Today: The popularity of the Royal Family on the rise

The Netherlands
Daily Mail: She’s a work of art: Queen Maxima looks elegant in an olive ensemble as she opens the Royal Paradise exhibition in Dordrecht

Tongo
Newstalk ZB: Tongans mourn death of Queen Mother
Matangi Tonga Online: Tonga’s Queen Mother Halaevalu Mata’aho passes away
Matangi Tonga Online: Charities remember Queen Mother’s legacy: “We will deeply miss her”
Fiji Times: Tonga’s Queen Mother dies at 90
TVNZ: Tributes paid after death of Tongan King’s mother

UK
Daily Mail: Queen’s beloved royal train is saved from the scrapheap as tests reveal it is still in perfect working order after 120 years
Daily Mail: Diana’s life in fashion: From her classic ‘Elvis dress’ to a post-divorce blush pink day suit, the fascinating evolution of the Princess’ style
Daily Mail: Princess Beatrice understood to have teamed up with US firm Afiniti in her latest business venture
Daily Mail: TV wrestler ‘dealt cocaine to Princess Margaret but police covered up the investigation into the claims’
Express: Princess Margaret in ‘COCAINE DEALS from famous TV wrestler’
Express: Prince Harry plans diary so he can work in CANADA as he’s ‘SMITTEN’ with Meghan Markle
Express: Queen steps in to keep the royal train rolling
Telegraph: Learning to shoot with the gun that takes two years to make, is loved by the Royals and costs £100,000
Telegraph: Donald Trump’s State Visit to UK is in national interest but he won’t address Parliament, ministers expected to say

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Eleanor of England, Countess of Leicester

by Susan Flantzer

Credit – Wikipedia

The third of the three daughters and the youngest of the five children of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême, Eleanor was born in 1215 in Gloucester, England. She was given the name Eleanor in honor of her grandmother Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Eleanor had four siblings:

13th-century depiction of John and his legitimate children, (l to r) Henry, Richard, Isabella, Eleanor, and Joan; Credit – Wikipedia

Eleanor never knew her father.  On October 18, 1216, when Isabella was only a year old, her father King John died leaving his elder son King Henry III, a nine year old, to inherit his throne in the midst of the First Barons’ War (1215–17), in which a group of rebellious barons supported by a French army, made war on King John because of his refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta. In July of 1217, Eleanor’s mother Isabella of Angoulême left England and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance the County of Angoulême, basically abandoning her children by King John. In 1220, she married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche with whom she had nine children, who were Eleanor’s half-siblings.

As a young child, Eleanor was promised in marriage to William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, the son of the great William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who had served Eleanor’s grandfather King Henry II, her uncle King Richard I, her father King John and had been the Regent of her  brother King Henry III.   On April 23, 1224, nine-year-old Eleanor married 34-year-old William at the Temple Church in London.   Because of Eleanor’s young age, she remained at her brother’s court until 1229 when she moved into the household of her husband.   Eleanor accompanied William on his trips through England, France, and Ireland.  After a seven-year, childless marriage, William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke died on April 6, 1231, and was buried in the Temple Church in London, next to his father, where their effigies may still be seen.

Effigy of William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Photo Credit – www.findagrave.com

After her husband’s death, 16-year-old Eleanor took a vow of chastity in the presence of Edmund Rich, the Archbishop of Canterbury.  Because of her age, Eleanor was placed under the guardianship of her brother King Henry III.   Henry made a financial agreement which was very unfavorable to Eleanor with Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, the brother and heir of Eleanor’s dead husband.

Seven years later, at her brother’s court, Eleanor met Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, a younger son of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, a French nobleman and crusader. With the consent of King Henry III, because Simon had allegedly seduced Eleanor, Eleanor and Simon were secretly married on January 7, 1238 in the king’s private chapel at the Palace of Westminster.  Two months later, the marriage became public.  Eleanor’s other brother, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, claimed that the marriage was not valid because it lacked the approval of the barons.  Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury condemned the marriage because Eleanor had taken a vow of chastity. The barons protested the marriage of their king’s sister to a foreigner of modest rank.  Simon was forced to go to Rome for papal approval of the marriage.

Eleanor and Simon had seven children:

In the early years of their marriage, Simon and Eleanor had good relations with Eleanor’s brother King Henry III. Their first child, born in November 1238, more than nine months after the wedding, was christened Henry in honor of his royal uncle. In February 1239, de Montfort was formally invested as the Earl of Leicester. He also acted as the king’s counselor and was one of the nine godfathers of Henry’s eldest son who would inherit the throne and become King Edward I.

King Henry III’s wife was Eleanor of Provence, the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy. Many of Eleanor’s maternal Savoy relatives came to the English court including uncles Pietro and Bonifacio. Pietro lived in England for a long time, served as a diplomat, and became Earl of Richmond. Bonifacio became Archbishop of Canterbury, a position secured by his niece’s husband King Henry III. In 1247, Henry’s half-brothers from his mother’s second marriage, the Lusignans came to England, and competed for lands and promotions with the queen’s Savoy relatives. Henry’s relatives were rewarded with large estates, largely at the expense of the English barons. From 1236 to 1258, the weak king fluctuated repeatedly between various advisers including his brother Richard of Cornwall and his Lusignan half-brothers, which greatly displeased the English barons. In addition, the English barons were displeased with Henry III’s demands for extra funds, Henry’s methods of government, and widespread famine.

The displeasure of the English nobility with the king, ultimately resulted in a civil war, the Second Barons’ War (1264–1267). The leader of the forces against Henry was led by Eleanor’s husband Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. de Montfort wanted to reassert the Magna Carta and force the king to surrender more power to the baron’s council.

In 1264 at the Battle of Lewes, King Henry III and his son, the future King Edward I, were defeated and captured. Henry was forced to summon a parliament and to promise to rule with the advice of a council of barons. Henry was reduced to a figurehead king, and de Montfort broadened parliamentary representation to include groups beyond the nobility, members from each county of England and many important towns. Fifteen months later, Edward led the royalists into battle again, defeating and killing de Montfort and his eldest son Edward at the Battle of Evesham on August 4,  1265. de Montfort’s remains were brutally mutilated.  The remains that could be found were buried under the altar of Evesham Abbey.

In the years that followed his death, Simon de Montfort’s grave was frequently visited by pilgrims until King Henry III heard about it. He declared that de Montfort did not deserve burial on holy ground and had his remains reburied under an insignificant tree.  Evesham Abbey and the site of de Montfort’s grave were destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the reign of King Henry VIII.  In 1965, marking the 700th anniversary of de Montfort’s death, a memorial was laid on the site of the former altar of Evesham Abbey by Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Harry Hylton-Foster and Michael Ramsey, Archbishop of Canterbury.

Memorial stone on the site of Montfort’s grave; Photo Credit – By Smb1001 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2202776

Today, Simon de Montfort is considered as one of the fathers of representative government.  His contributions have been remembered over the years by the British Houses of Parliament.  A bas-relief of de Montfort hangs on the wall of the chamber of the United States House of Representatives where he is recognized as one of the 23 historical lawgivers.

Simon de Montfort marble bas-relief, one of 23 reliefs of great historical lawgivers in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives in the United States Capitol, sculpted by Gaetano Cecere in 1950; Credit – Wikipedia

After her husband’s death, Eleanor organized a defense of Dover Castle against royalist troops, but in October of 1265, the castle was taken by her nephew, Edward, Prince of Wales (the future King Edward I). Eleanor’s possessions were confiscated by the Crown and she was exiled to France with her 13-year-old daughter Eleanor.  She sought refuge at a de Montfort stronghold, Montargis Abbey, founded by her husband’s sister Amicia de Montfort. With the influence of King Louis IX of France, King Henry III paid his sister compensation for her confiscated lands and goods in 1367.  Eleanor lived the rest of her life as a nun at Montargis Abbey where she died on April 13, 1375 at the age of 60 and was buried.

Wikipedia: Eleanor of Leicester

Works Cited
Abrufstatistik. “Eleanor von England.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2017.
“Eleanor of Leicester.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Sept. 2016. Web. 5 Jan. 2017.
“Simon de Montfort, 6th earl of Leicester.” Wikipedia. N.p.: Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Dec. 2016. Web. 5 Jan. 2017.
Susan. “King Henry III of England.” British Royals. Unofficial Royalty, 5 Sept. 2015. Web. 5 Jan. 2017.
Susan. “Isabella of Angoulême, queen of England.” British Royals. Unofficial Royalty, 23 Aug. 2016. Web. 5 Jan. 2017.

February 20: Today in Royal History

Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, wife of King Frederick III of Denmark; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

February 20, 1513 – Death of King Hans of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden at Aalborghus Castle in Denmark; buried first at the Franciscan Church in Odense, Denmark, later his remains were translated to St. Canute’s Cathedral in Odense, Denmark
Wikipedia: King Hans of Denmark

February 20, 1547 – Coronation of King Edward VI of England at Westminster Abbey
Edward became king when he was 9 years old.  He was crowned a month later.
Unofficial Royalty: King Edward VI of England

February 20, 1685 – Death of Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, wife of King Frederick III of Denmark, in Copenhagen; buried at Roskilde Cathedral in Denmark
Wikipedia: Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg

February 20, 1867 – Birth of Louise, Princess Royal, daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, at Marlborough House in London, England
Full name: Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar
Unofficial Royalty: Louise, Princess Royal

February 20, 2014 – Birth of Princess Leonore of Sweden, Duchess of Gotland at Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City
Full name: Leonore Lilian Maria
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Leonore of Sweden

Royal News: Sunday 19 February 2017

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Royal Birthdays & Anniversaries: February 19 – February 25

Prince Andrew, Duke of York; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

57th birth of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, son of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom; born at Buckingham Palace on February 19, 1960
Full name: Andrew Albert Christian Edward
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Andrew, Duke of York

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3rd birthday of Princess Leonore of Sweden, Duchess of Gotland; born at Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York City on February 20, 2014
Full name: Leonore Lilian Maria
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Leonore of Sweden

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King Harald V of Norway; Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

80th birthday of King Harald V of Norway; born at the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, Asker, Norway on February 21, 1937
Unofficial Royalty: King Harald V of Norway

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Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, Dragon King of Bhutan; Photo Credit – www.indiatimes.com

37th birthday of Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, Dragon King of Bhutan; born at Dechencholing Palace in Thimphu, Bhutan on February 21, 1980
Unofficial Royalty: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck

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Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este; Photo Credit – www.businessinsider.com

31st birthday of Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, son of Princess Astrid of Belgium; born at the University Clinic St. Luc in Woluwe-St-Lambert, Belgium on February 21, 1986
Full name: Amedeo Marie Joseph Carl Pierre Philippe Paola Marcus d’Aviano
Wikipedia: Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este

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Katharine, Duchess of Kent; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

84th birthday of Katharine Worsley, wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent; born at Hovingham Hall in Yorkshire, England on February 22, 1933
Full name: Katharine Lucy Mary
Unofficial Royalty: Katharine, Duchess of Kent

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Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan; Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

57th birthday of Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan; born at Togu Palace in Tokyo, Japan on February 23, 1960
Unofficial Royalty: Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan

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5th birthday of Princess Estelle of Sweden, daughter of Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden; born at the Karolinska University Hospital in Solna, Sweden on February 23, 2012
Full name: Estelle Silvia Ewa Mary
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Estelle of Sweden

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February 19: Today in Royal History

Henry, Prince of Wales, son of King James I of England; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

February 19, 1594 – Birth of Henry, Prince of Wales, son of King James I of England, at Stirling Castle, Scotland
Full name: Henry Frederick
Henry died of typhoid fever at the age of 18 and predeceased his father, so his brother, the future King Charles I, became heir.
Unofficial Royalty: Henry, Prince of Wales

February 19, 1670 – Death of King Frederik III of Denmark and Norway in Copenhagen; buried at Roskilde Cathedral in Denmark
Wikipedia: King Frederik III of Denmark

February 19, 1817 – Birth of King Willem III of the Netherlands in Brussels (Belgium)
Full name: Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk
Unofficial Royalty: King Willem III of the Netherlands

February 19, 1960 – Birth of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, at Buckingham Palace in London, England
Full name: Andrew Albert Christian Edward
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Andrew, Duke of York

Royal News: Saturday 18 February 2017

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February 18: Today in Royal History

Elisabeth of Württemberg, Archduchess of Austria; Credit – Wikipedia

February 18, 1478 – Execution of George, Duke of Clarence, who opposed his brother King Edward IV of England, in the Tower of London; buried at Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucester, England
Wikipedia: George, 1st Duke of Clarence

February 18, 1516 – Birth of Queen Mary I of England at Greenwich Palace, England
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Mary I of England

February 18, 1790 – Death of Elisabeth of Württemberg, first wife of Emperor Franz I of Austria; buried at the Imperial Crypt, Vienna
Elisabeth died in childbirth at age 22.
Unofficial Royalty: Elisabeth of Württemberg, Archduchess of Austria

February 18, 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia becomes the first king of a united Italy
Unofficial Royalty: King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

February 18, 1932 – Death of Frederick Augustus III, last King of Saxony
Wikipedia: Frederick Augustus III, King of Saxony

February 18, 1947 – Birth of Princess Christina of the Netherlands, daughter of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, at Soestdijk Palace in the Netherlands
Full Name: Maria Christina
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Christina of the Netherlands

February 18, 1984 – Birth of Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy, wife of Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, in Ronse, Flanders, Belgium
Unofficial Royalty: Stephanie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg

February 18, 2000 – Wedding of Letsie III, King of Lesotho and Karabo Motsoeneng
Unofficial Royalty: Letsie III, King of Lesotho
Wikipedia: Karabo Motsoeneng