Royal News: Friday 29 July 2016

Doing some shopping on Amazon.com? Please remember to use our Amazon link – found at the top of the right-hand column on every page of our site. It costs you nothing, and every purchase made through that link helps to support Unofficial Royalty, so that we can continue to bring you the royal news and features every day. Thank you!

Denmark

Monaco

Russia

Spain

United Kingdom

Make sure to get the latest news updates as soon as they’re posted. Register today as a member of Unofficial Royalty. It’s quick and easy, and completely free! Click the ‘Register’ link in the menu to the right.

Isabella of Valois, Queen of England

by Susan Flantzer

Miniature detailing Richard II of England receiving his six-year-old bride Isabel of Valois from her father Charles VI of France; Credit – Wikipedia

The second wife of King Richard II of England, Isabella of Valois, was born on November 9, 1389 at the Louvre Palace in Paris, France. She was the third, but the eldest surviving, of the twelve children of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. Isabella’s younger sister Catherine married King Henry V of England and was the mother of King Henry VI. Through her second marriage to Owen Tudor, Catherine was the grandmother of King Henry VII of England.

Isabella’s eleven siblings:

From a very early age, Isabella was part of the French dynastic marriage plan. At the age of two, she was betrothed to John, the six year old son and eventual heir of Peter II, Duke of Alençon, but nothing ever came of this proposed marriage. Soon after the death of his first wife Anne of Bohemia in 1394, the childless King Richard II of England began a search for a new wife. He turned to France seeking an alliance, and after negotiations, a marriage was arranged between Isabella and Richard who was 22 years older than his bride. This marriage had many opponents, especially Louis I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of the French king and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, youngest uncle of the English king. Nevertheless, on November 1, 1396 at the Church of St. Nicholas in Calais, seven year old Isabella married 29 year old Richard. Richard and Isabella left for England a few days later and on November 23, 1396, she made her state entry into London. The crowds in London were so great, that people were crushed to death on London Bridge. Isabella was crowned at Westminster Abbey on January 8, 1397. Isabella lived apart from Richard at Windsor Castle. Richard visited her frequently and a strong affection developed between the couple of this unconsummated marriage.

Richard and Isabella on their wedding day; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1398, Henry Bolingbroke, the first cousin of King Richard II and the eldest child of King Edward III‘s third son John of Gaunt, quarreled with Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, who accused him of treason. The two men planned to duel, but instead King Richard II banished them from England, and Henry went to France. John of Gaunt died on February 3, 1399 and Richard confiscated the estates of his uncle and stipulated that Henry would have to ask him to restore the estates. Henry returned to England while his cousin Richard was on a military campaign in Ireland and began a military campaign of his own, confiscating land of those who had opposed him. King Richard II eventually was abandoned by his supporters and was forced by Parliament on September 29, 1399 to abdicate the crown to his cousin Henry. King Henry IV was crowned in Westminster Abbey of October 13, 1399. Richard was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire where he died on or around February 14, 1400. The exact cause of his death, thought to have been starvation, is unknown.

Richard II’s funeral; Credit – Wikipedia

Henry IV had confined Isabella, a widow at age 10, to the Bishop of Salisbury’s palace on the River Thames in Sonning. Isabella’s jewels were seized and divided among Henry IV’s children. Henry’s council declared that Isabella had no rights to any dower, a provision accorded by law, but traditionally by a husband or his family, to a wife for her support in the event that she should survive her husband. Eventually, Isabella’s return to France was arranged and she left England on July 1, 1401. Henry IV made several attempts to arrange for Isabella to marry his son and heir the future King Henry V, but the French royal family declined.

Isabella married her cousin Charles of Orléans in Compiègne, France on June 29, 1406. In November 1407, Isabella’s husband became Duke of Orléans when his father, who had opposed Isabella’s marriage to Richard, was murdered on orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, who had helped arrange that marriage.

Charles, Duke of Orleans, Isabella’s second husband; Credit – Wikipedia

Isabella had a happy, but short second marriage. At the age of 19, she died on September 14, 1409 in Blois, France a few hours after giving birth to her only child, a daughter named Joan (1409 – 1432), who married John II, Duke of Alençon, but had no issue. Isabella was buried at the Abbey of St. Saumer in Blois, France. In 1624, Isabella’s remains were transferred to the Church of the Celestines in Paris, which was destroyed during the French Revolution.

Charles, Duke of Orléans survived Isabella by many years, marrying two more times and dying in 1465. He fought in the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, King Henry V of England’s great victory, and was captured by the English. He spent 25 years as a prisoner in the Tower of London. Charles was an accomplished poet. Five hundred of his poems, written in both French and English, during his 25 years spent as a prisoner of war, survive.

Wikipedia: Isabella of Valois, Queen of England

July 29: Today in Royal History

Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary, Queen of Scots; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 29, 1030 – Death of King Olav II of Norway in battle at Stiklestad, Norway; thought to be buried under Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, Norway
King Olav II is the patron saint of Norway.
Wikipedia: King Olav II of Norway

July 29, 1108 – Death of King Philip I of France in Melun, France; buried at the Fleury Abbey in Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, France
Wikipedia: King Philip I of France

July 29, 1565 – Wedding of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Scotland
Mary and Darnley were both grandchildren of Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII of England
Wikipedia: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Wikipedia: Mary, Queen of Scots

July 29, 1588 – Defeat of the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines by the English Navy
Wikipedia: Spanish Armada

July 29, 1672 – Birth of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and 1st Duke of Lennox, 1er Duc d’ Aubigny, illegitimate son of King Charles II of England and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
Wikipedia: Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and Lennox

July 29, 1900 – Assassination of King Umberto I of Italy by anarchist Gaetano Bresci at Monza, Italy; buried in the Pantheon in Rome, Italy
Unofficial Royalty: King Umberto I of Italy

July 29, 1981 – Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, England
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer
Unofficial Royalty: Diana, Princess of Wales
Unofficial Royalty: Charles, Prince of Wales

Royal News: Thursday 28 July 2016

Doing some shopping on Amazon.com? Please remember to use our Amazon link – found at the top of the right-hand column on every page of our site. It costs you nothing, and every purchase made through that link helps to support Unofficial Royalty, so that we can continue to bring you the royal news and features every day. Thank you!

Bahrain

Jordan

Monaco

Multiple Monarchies

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Spain

United Kingdom

Make sure to get the latest news updates as soon as they’re posted. Register today as a member of Unofficial Royalty. It’s quick and easy, and completely free! Click the ‘Register’ link in the menu to the right.

July 28: Today in Royal History

King Frederik VIII of Denmark and Lovisa of Sweden; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 28, 1540 – Execution of Thomas Cromwell, chief minister to King Henry VIII of England, at Tower Hill in London, England
Wikipedia: Thomas Cromwell

July 28, 1540 – Wedding of King Henry VIII of England and Catherine Howard, his fifth wife, at Hampton Court Palace in Richmond, England
Catherine Howard was a first cousin of Anne Boleyn.
Unofficial Royalty: Catherine Howard, Queen of England
Unofficial Royalty: King Henry VIII of England

July 28, 1683 – Wedding of Queen Anne of the United Kingdom and Prince George of Denmark, son of King Frederik III of Denmark, at the Chapel Royal, St. James Palace in London, England
Unofficial Royalty: Prince George of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Anne of the United Kingdom

July 28, 1684 – Death of Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy, illegitimate daughter of King Charles II of England and Elizabeth Killigrew; buried at Westminster Abbey
Wikipedia: Charlotte FitzRoy

July 28, 1844 – Death of Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, King of Naples and Sicily, King of Spain and the Indies, Comte de Survilliers in Florence, Italy; buried at Les Invalides in Paris, France
Wikipedia: Joseph Bonaparte

July 28, 1869 – Wedding of King Frederik VIII of Denmark and Lovisa of Sweden at the Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden
Unofficial Royalty: King Frederik VIII of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Lovisa of Sweden, Queen of Denmark

July 28, 1996 – Birth of Samuel Chatto, son of Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones and grandson of Princess Margaret of the United Kingdom
Full name: Samuel David Benedict
Wikipedia: Samuel Chatto

Royal News: Wednesday 27 July 2016

Doing some shopping on Amazon.com? Please remember to use our Amazon link – found at the top of the right-hand column on every page of our site. It costs you nothing, and every purchase made through that link helps to support Unofficial Royalty, so that we can continue to bring you the royal news and features every day. Thank you!

Denmark

Greece

Luxembourg

Monaco

Multiple Monarchies

Saudi Arabia

Spain

United Kingdom

King Richard II of England

by Susan Flantzer

Credit – Wikipedia

King Richard II of England was born in the Archbishop’s Palace in Bordeaux, then in the English-held Duchy of Aquitaine (now in France) on January 6, 1367. Because of his birthplace, he was known as Richard of Bordeaux. Richard was the second son and second child of Edward, Prince of Wales (known as the Black Prince), eldest son and heir of King Edward III of England, and Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent in her own right. Joan was a grandchild of King Edward I of England. Her father was Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, a son from Edward I’s second marriage. Richard had one elder sibling, Edward of Angoulême (1365 – 1370), who died young of the plague. After his elder brother’s death, Richard became the second in the line of succession to the throne after his father.

Edward of Angoulême and his mother Joan of Kent, depicted on the Wilton Diptych; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard had five half siblings from his mother’s first marriage to Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, 2nd Baron Holland

Edward, Prince of Wales (the Black Prince), Richard’s father, was King Edward III’s representative in Aquitaine, and the king had created Edward and his wife Joan Prince and Princess of Aquitaine. Richard had been born in Aquitaine, but his family returned to England in 1371, shortly after his brother’s death. When in England, the chief residences of Edward’s family were at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (since 1974 in Oxfordshire), and at Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire. The Black Prince was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battle of Crécy and the Battle of Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348, he became the first Knight of the Garter and was one of the order’s 25 founders.

Edward, Prince of Wales as Knight of the Order of the Garter, illustration from the Bruges Garter Book; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s father entrusted his son’s education to his boyhood friend Sir Simon de Burley, who instilled in Richard a love of literature and music as well as a sense of the importance of his royal office. Richard was the first English monarch who was fluent in English as well as the traditional Norman French of his ancestors. While in the midst of his childhood, nine year old Richard’s life changed when his father died at the age of 45 on June 8, 1376. Richard was now the heir to his grandfather’s throne. Because it was feared that Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt might usurp his place in the succession, Richard was quickly created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester. On June 21, 1377, King Edward III died and his ten year old grandson was now King Richard II.

King Richard II of England with his court after his coronation; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s coronation took place on July 16, 1377 at Westminster Abbey, just eleven days after his grandfather’s funeral. The quickness with which all this happened was certainly affected by the controversial succession of a child king whose father had not been the king. Some believed that one of King Edward III’s younger sons (there were three still alive: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester) should be king. Parliament, who was in a dispute with John of Gaunt at that time, supported Richard’s accession to the throne. John of Gaunt and his two brothers were excluded from councils which ruled during Richard’s minority, but as the uncles of the king, they still held great informal influence over the business of government. By 1380, the councils were abolished because Parliament distrusted Richard’s friends and councilors, particularly his tutor Sir Simon de Burley and Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, Marquess of Dublin, and 9th Earl of Oxford.  The uncertainty in the matter of Richard II’s succession laid the groundwork for the Wars of the Roses when the House of York and the House of Lancaster battled for the English throne.

Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1381, the Peasants’ Revolt led by Wat Tyler occurred over a poll tax of a shilling on all people over the age of 15. The revolt had started in Kent and Essex, but ultimately came to London where John of Gaunt’s Savoy Palace was burned down and the Archbishop of Canterbury Simon Sudbury, who was also Lord Chancellor, and the Lord High Treasurer Robert Hales were both killed by the rebels. 14 year old Richard rode out to Mile End in London to meet the rebels. Addressing the rebels in English, Richard agreed to their demands. This did not pacify the rebels and they continued the burning, looting, and killing. The next day, Richard met the rebel leader Wat Tyler at Smithfield in London and again agreed to meet their demands. However, the rebels were not convinced, the king’s men grew uneasy, and an altercation occurred in which Wat Tyler was pulled off his horse and killed. Richard, acting calmly, led the rebel mob away from the scene, granted clemency and allowed the rebels to disperse and return to their homes. When disturbances occurred in other parts of England, Richard revoked his agreement and the clemency and went to Essex to personally defeat the last rebels. At his young age, Richard did show courage and determination in ending the rebellion. However, he saw the danger of his subjects’ disobedience which threatened his authority and this helped shape his ideas of absolute monarchy which would later prove literally fatal.

Richard II watches Wat Tyler’s death and addresses the peasants in the background: taken from the Gruuthuse manuscript of Froissart’s Chroniques (c. 1475); Credit – Wikipedia

When Richard was 15, a bride was sought for him, and Anne of Bohemia, the eldest child of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, and his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania, seemed a logical choice as Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire were seen as potential allies against France in the ongoing Hundred Years’ War. However, the potential marriage was unpopular with the nobility and members of Parliament because Anne brought no dowry. Richard’s tutor and his father’s close friend Sir Simon de Burley was sent to negotiate the marriage contract and then escort the 15 year old bride to be to England. After Anne arrived in Dover, England, a huge wave wrecked the ship in which she had sailed, and this was seen as a bad omen. The young couple were married at Westminster Abbey on January 22, 1382, the fifth royal wedding at the Abbey. It was not until the wedding of Princess Patricia of Connaught, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, and Alexander Ramsay in 1919, 537 years later, that another royal wedding was held at Westminster Abbey. Richard and Anne had no children.

Anne of Bohemia with her husband King Richard II of England; Credit: Wikipedia

Since 1337, England had been fighting France in the Hundred Years’ War, and the English had been consistently losing territory to the French since 1369. Richard wanted to negotiate peace with France, but much of the nobility wanted to continue the war. In 1386, Parliament blamed Richard’s advisers for the military failures and accused them of misusing funds intended for the war. Parliament authorized a commission of nobles known as the Lords Appellant to take over management of the kingdom and act as Richard’s regents. There were originally three Lords Appellant: Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, son of Edward III and Richard’s uncle; Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick. Later, Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby (son of John of Gaunt, Richard’s first cousin and the future King Henry IV) and Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk also became Lords Appellant. Richard did not recognize the authority of the Lords Appellant and started an unsuccessful military attempt to overthrow the Lords Appellant and negotiate peace with France. In 1387, the Lords Appellant launched an armed rebellion against King Richard and defeated an army under Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford at the Battle of Radcot Bridge, outside Oxford. They maintained Richard as a figurehead with little real power. Parliament convicted almost all of Richard’s advisers of treason. Most of Richard’s advisers were executed and a few were exiled.

Depiction of Mowbray, Arundel, Gloucester, Derby and Warwick demanding of Richard II that he let them prove by arms the justice of their rebellion; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt had left England in 1386 to seek the throne of Castile, claimed by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. Because of the crisis in England, in 1389, Richard’s uncle and now his supporter, John of Gaunt, returned from Castile and Richard was able to rebuild his power gradually until 1397, when he reasserted his authority and destroyed the principal three among the Lords Appellant.

Richard never forgave the Lords Appellant. His uncle Thomas, Duke Gloucester was murdered in captivity in Calais, probably on Richard’s orders. Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel was beheaded. Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick lost his title and his lands, and was imprisoned on the Isle of Man until Richard was overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke. Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk were both exiled in 1399 and Richard revoked the permission he had given them to sue for any inheritance which fell due, as it did in relation to Mowbray’s grandmother and, more significantly, of Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt. The actions Richard took against his first cousin would ultimately result in his downfall.

In June of 1394, Queen Anne became ill with the plague while at Sheen Palace with her husband. She died three days later on June 7, 1394 at the age of 28. King Richard II was so devastated by Anne’s death that he ordered Sheen Palace to be destroyed. For almost 20 years it lay in ruins until King Henry V started a rebuilding project in 1414. With Richard being childless, the heir presumptive to the throne was Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March who was the grandson of Richard’s deceased uncle Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence. Lionel of Antwerp was the second son of King Edward III so his heirs had superior genealogical claim to the throne over that of Edward III’s third son John of Gaunt. Despite the fact that Richard officially recognized the claim of Roger Mortimer, the claim was unlikely to remain uncontested.

Soon after the death of Anne of Bohemia in 1394, the childless King Richard II began a search for a new wife. He turned to France seeking an alliance, and after negotiations, a marriage was arranged between Isabella of Valois and Richard who was 22 years older than his bride. Isabella was the daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. This marriage had many opponents, especially Louis I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of the French king and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, youngest uncle of the English king. Nevertheless, on November 1, 1396 at the Church of St. Nicholas in Calais, seven year old Isabella married 29 year old Richard. Richard and Isabella left for England a few days later and on November 23, 1396, she made her state entry into London. The couple had no children due to Isabella’s young age. After Richard’s death, Isabella returned to France and married her cousin Charles of Orléans. At the age of 19, she died on September 14, 1409 in Blois, France a few hours after giving birth to her only child.

Richard and Isabella on their wedding day; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1398, Henry Bolingbroke, first cousin of King Richard II and the eldest child of King Edward III’s third son John of Gaunt, quarreled with Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, who accused him of treason. The two men planned to duel, but instead King Richard II banished them from England, and Henry went to France.  John of Gaunt died on February 3, 1399 and Richard confiscated the estates of his uncle and stipulated that Henry would have to ask him to restore the estates. Henry returned to England while his cousin Richard was on a military campaign in Ireland and began a military campaign of his own, confiscating land of those who had opposed him. King Richard II eventually was abandoned by his supporters and was forced by Parliament on September 29, 1399 to abdicate the crown to his cousin Henry. King Henry IV, first king of the House of Lancaster, was crowned in Westminster Abbey of October 13, 1399. Richard was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire where he died on or around February 14, 1400. The exact cause of his death, thought to have been starvation, is unknown.

Richard being taken into custody by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland (Froissart); Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s body was taken south from Pontefract Castle and displayed in the Old St Paul’s Cathedral in London on February 17, 1400 before burial in Kings Langley Church on March 6, 1400.

King Richard II’s funeral; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1413, King Henry V of England, son of King Henry IV, in an effort to atone for his father’s act of murder and to silence the rumors of Richard’s survival, had Richard’s remains moved to Westminster Abbey where they were placed in an elaborate tomb Richard had constructed for his first wife Anne of Bohemia.

Richard II and Anne of Bohemia tomb from Henry V Chantry

Tomb of King Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia in Westminster Abbey; Photo Credit – http://www.westminster-abbey.org

Wikipedia: King Richard II of England

July 27: Today in Royal History

Louise, Princess Royal and her husband Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 27, 1365 – Wedding of Isabella of England, daughter of King Edward III of England, and Enguerrand VII de Courcy, Earl of Bedford, at Windsor Castle
Wikipedia: Isabella of England
Wikipedia: Enguerrand VII de Courcy

July 27, 1626 – Death of Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Wikipedia: Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt

July 27, 1889 – Wedding of Princess Louise, daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, and Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, at the Private Chapel in Buckingham Palace
Unofficial Royalty: Louise, Princess Royal
Unofficial Royalty: Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife

July 27, 1980 – Death of Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, last Shah of Iran, in Cairo, Egypt, buried at the Al Rifa’i Mosque in Cairo, Egypt
Wikipedia: Mohammed Reza Pahlavi

Royal News: Tuesday 26 July 2016

Doing some shopping on Amazon.com? Please remember to use our Amazon link – found at the top of the right-hand column on every page of our site. It costs you nothing, and every purchase made through that link helps to support Unofficial Royalty, so that we can continue to bring you the royal news and features every day. Thank you!

Japan

Multiple Monarchies

Saudi Arabia

Sweden

United Kingdom

Make sure to get the latest news updates as soon as they’re posted. Register today as a member of Unofficial Royalty. It’s quick and easy, and completely free! Click the ‘Register’ link in the menu to the right.

July 26: Today in Royal History

King Otto of Greece; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 26, 1469 – Lancastrian victory at the Battle of Edgecote Moor
Wikipedia: Battle of Edgecote Moor

July 26, 1867 – Death of former King Otto of Greece, born Prince Otto of Bavaria, at Neue Residenz in Bamberg, Bavaria (Germany); buried at Theatinerkirche St. Kajetan in Munich, Bavaria (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: King Otto of Greece

July 26, 1944 – Death of Reza Shah Pahlavi, former Shah of Iran and father of the last Shah, in exile in Johannesburg, South Africa; buried at Reza Shah’s Mausoleum in Ray, Tehran, Iran which was later destroyed during the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Wikipedia: Reza Shah Pahlavi

July 26, 1958 – Debutantes presented at the British royal court for the last time
Historic Royal Palaces: The Last Debutantes
Wikipedia: Debutantes – United Kingdom