Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England

by Susan Flantzer

Credit – Wikipedia

Catherine of Aragon (Catalina in Spanish) was the first of the six wives of King Henry VIII of England and the mother of Queen Mary I of England. Born on December 15, 1485 at the Archbishops Palace in Alcalá de Henares in the Kingdom of Castile (now in Spain), Catherine was the youngest child of the Catholic Monarchs, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, whose marriage ultimately united Aragon and Castile into the Kingdom of Spain.

King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; Credit – Wikipedia

Catherine had blue eyes and golden red hair which had come from her mother’s descent from the English House of Plantagenet. Catherine’s great-grandmother Catherine of Lancaster and her great great grandmother Philippa of Lancaster were daughters of John of Gaunt, a son of King Edward III of England. Alessandro Geraldini, a humanist scholar and later Bishop of Santo Domingo, served as tutor to Catherine and her siblings, all of whom received an excellent education.

Catherine of Aragon at age 11; Credit – Wikipedia

Catherine had four elder siblings:

When Catherine was only two years old, King Henry VII of England began negotiations for his son and heir, Arthur, Prince of Wales to marry Catherine. The Treaty of Medina del Campo, ratified by Spain in 1489 and by England in 1490, contained the marriage contract between Catherine and Arthur. Catherine left Spain in 1501, never to return, and on November 14, 1501, the two 15 year-olds, Catherine and Arthur, were married at the Old St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. She was escorted to the cathedral by the 10 year-old Henry, Duke of York, who would eventually become her second husband.

Arthur, Prince of Wales, circa 1501; Credit – Wikipedia

Catherine of Aragon, circa 1502; Credit – Wikipedia

Soon after their marriage, Catherine and Arthur went to live at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, close to Wales, where, as Prince of Wales, Arthur presided over the Council of Wales and the Marches.  Less than five months later, on April 2, 1502, Arthur died, probably of the sweating sickness, and 16 year-old Catherine was left a widow. There was no issue from the marriage and it is doubtful that the marriage was even consummated, as Catherine in later years would claim.

King Henry VII did not want to lose Catherine of Aragon’s dowry or the alliance he had made with Spain, so he offered his new heir Henry, who was five years younger than Catherine, to be her husband. A number of problems with negotiations made it doubtful that the marriage would ever take place. With little money, Catherine lived as a virtual prisoner at Durham House in London from 1502 – 1509. King Henry VII died on April 21, 1509 and 17 year old Henry succeeded him.

King Henry VIII, 1509; Credit – Wikipedia

King Henry VIII married 23 year-old Catherine in June 11, 1509 at Grey Friar’s Church, Greenwich. On June 23, 1509, the traditional procession to Westminster, held the day before the coronation of English kings, was greeted by a large and enthusiastic crowd. Following tradition, Henry and Catherine spent the night before their coronation at the Tower of London. King Henry VIII and Queen Catherine were anointed and crowned by William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury in Westminster Abbey on June 24, 1509.

16th century woodcut of the coronation of King Henry VIII of England and Catherine of Aragon showing their heraldic badges, the Tudor Rose and the Pomegranate of Granada; Credit – Wikipedia

Catherine had six pregnancies, however only one child, the future Queen Mary I, survived.

  • January 31, 1510: a premature stillborn girl
  • January 1, 1511: Henry, Duke of Cornwall, died February 22, 1511
  • September 17, 1513: a premature son, the second Henry, Duke of Cornwall, who died shortly after birth
  • January 8, 1515: a stillborn boy
  • February 18, 1516: Queen Mary I (1516 – 1558); married King Philip II of Spain, no issue
  • November 10, 1518: a daughter, who died shortly after birth

Catherine and Henry’s daughter, later Queen Mary I; Credit – Wikipedia

Catherine was highly regarded as queen and Henry made her regent when he went on campaign in France and Flanders in 1513. While Henry was away, it was up to Catherine to supervise England’s defense when Scotland invaded. Ultimately, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Flodden and Catherine sent Henry the bloodstained coat of the defeated and dead King James IV of Scotland (who was married to Henry’s sister Margaret). In 1520, Catherine accompanied Henry to the Field of the Cloth of Gold in France where he met King François I of France.

Field of the Cloth of Gold; Credit – Wikipedia

Catherine was instrumental in reviving an interest in gardening which had been all but forgotten during the time England was plagued by the Wars of the Roses. Henry imported a gardener from Flanders and the gardens at Hampton Court Palace were the premier gardens in England. Part of Henry’s garden layout still survive at Hampton Court Palace’s Pond Garden.

0890_HamptonCtPal_7

Pond Garden at Hampton Court Palace; Photo Credit – Susan Flantzer

By the time Catherine turned 40 in 1525, it was very unlikely that she would produce the male heir that Henry yearned for. Henry had three options. He could legitimize his illegitimate son Henry FitzRoy. He could marry his daughter Mary and hope for a grandson. He could reject Catherine and marry someone of childbearing age. Henry became convinced that his marriage was cursed because Leviticus 20:21 says, “And if a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.” Around the same time, Henry became enamored of Anne Boleyn, a lady-in-waiting to Catherine, and Henry began pursuing her.

Henry instructed Cardinal Wolsey to start negotiations with the Vatican to have his marriage with Catherine annulled. Catherine put up a valiant fight to save her marriage and was supported by her nephew Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.  After several long years of negotiations, Cardinal Wolsey failed to obtain the annulment incurring the anger of Anne Boleyn, who brought about Wolsey’s dismissal as Chancellor. A far more reaching consequence was Henry’s break with Rome which was to lead to the Reformation in England and the establishment of the Church of England. In 1533, Henry nominated Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury and in May of 1533, Cranmer declared that because Henry and Catherine’s marriage was against the law of God, it was null and void. Catherine had testified that she and Arthur had never had physical relations.

Catherine was banished from the court and Henry refused her the right to any title but “Dowager Princess of Wales” in recognition of her position as his brother’s widow. She was forbidden to see her daughter Mary. Catherine suffered these indignities with patience and told her women not to curse the new queen, Anne Boleyn. She spent most of her time doing needlework and praying. Catherine refused to accept the 1533 Act of Succession which made her daughter Mary a bastard and made Anne Boleyn’s daughter Elizabeth Henry’s successor.

By 1535, with no hope of ever seeing her daughter Mary, who suffered great humiliation at the court of Anne Boleyn, Catherine’s health deteriorated and she was taken to Kimbolton Castle. Catherine knew by December of 1535 that she would not live much longer. She put her will in order, wrote to her nephew Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor asking him to protect Mary, and wrote her final letter to King Henry VIII:

My most dear lord, king and husband,

The hour of my death now drawing on, the tender love I owe you forceth me, my case being such, to commend myself to you, and to put you in remembrance with a few words of the health and safeguard of your soul which you ought to prefer before all worldly matters, and before the care and pampering of your body, for the which you have cast me into many calamities and yourself into many troubles. For my part, I pardon you everything, and I wish to devoutly pray God that He will pardon you also. For the rest, I commend unto you our daughter Mary, beseeching you to be a good father unto her, as I have heretofore desired. I entreat you also, on behalf of my maids, to give them marriage portions, which is not much, they being but three. For all my other servants I solicit the wages due them, and a year more, lest they be unprovided for. Lastly, I make this vow, that mine eyes desire you above all things.
Katharine the Quene.

Catherine died on January 7, 1536 at the age of 50. Rumors were circulated that she had been poisoned. Her embalmer described her heart as “quite black and hideous to look at” with a “black round body stuck to the outside.” Modern doctors have agreed that her heart’s discoloration was due to cancer. Catherine was buried at Peterborough Cathedral on January 29, 1536, but her daughter Mary was not allowed to attend her funeral. A cortege from Kimbolton Castle brought Catherine’s remains to Peterborough Abbey, now Peterborough Cathedral. It was the nearest great religious place and Henry did not want to move her remains to London as it would have given the wrong message. The cortege was covered in black velvet, pulled by six horses, and accompanied by 50 servants in suits made of black fabric, carrying banners and torches. The cortege was met by four bishops and six abbots, and 1,000 candles lit up the abbey, where three masses were held as part of the funeral.

Catherine was buried in an elaborate black marble tomb gilded with gold. The gold was stolen by Oliver Cromwell’s soldiers during the English Civil War. The marble tomb survived into the 18th century when it was taken apart by one of the deans of the cathedral for the floor of his summer house. In 1895, Katharine Clayton, the wife of one of the canons at the cathedral, decided something should be done to restore Catherine’s tomb, so she launched an appeal for Katharines/Katherines/Catherines around the England to donate money towards the project. Every year around the anniversary of her death, a service commemorating Catherine of Aragon’s life is held at Peterborough Catherdal. Catherine’s grave is visited by many people each year, some of who leave flowers and pomegranates, Catherine’s heraldic symbol.

Grave of Catherine of Aragon at Peterborough Cathedral; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

Wikipedia: Catherine of Aragon

May 27: Today in Royal History

William II, Prince of Orange; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 27, 1199 – Coronation of King John of England
John’s second wife Isabella of Angouleme was crowned on October 8, 1200.
Wikipedia: John of England

May 27, 1541- Execution of Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury, daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, at the Tower of London; buried at St. Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London
Margaret was the niece of King Edward IV of England and one of the few survivors of the Plantagenets after the Wars of the Roses.  She was executed during the reign of King Henry VIII.  Beatified by the Roman Catholic Church in 1886, she is known as Blessed Margaret Pole.
Unofficial Royalty: Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury

May 27, 1626 – Birth of William II, Prince of Orange in The Hague, Dutch Republic (The Netherlands)
William married Mary, Princess Royal who was the daughter of King Charles I of England.  William and Mary were the parents of William III, Prince of Orange, who married his cousin Mary and together they reigned in England as William III and Mary II.
Wikipedia: William II, Prince of Orange

May 27, 1707 – Death of Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Marquise de Montespan, better known as Madame de Montespan, mistress of King Louis XIV of France, in Bourbon-l’Archambault, France
Wikipedia: Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart

May 27, 1723 – Death of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and 1st Duke of Lennox, 1er Duc d’ Aubigny, illegitimate son of King Charles II of England and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
Wikipedia: Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and Lennox

May 27, 1756 – Birth of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria in Schwetzingen (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

May 27, 1770 – Death of Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, wife of King Christian VI of Denmark and Norway, at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark; buried in Roskilde Cathedral in Roskilde, Denmark
Wikipedia: Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach

May 27, 1819 – Birth of King George V of Hanover in Berlin, Prussia (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: George V of Hanover

May 27, 1848 – Death of Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom, at Vicarage Place in Kensington, London, England; buried at Kensal Green Cemetery in London, England
Wikipedia: Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom

May 27, 1987- Wedding of Prince Jean of Luxembourg and Helene Vestur
The couple has since divorced.
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Jean of Luxembourg

May 27, 2004 – Official Wedding of Prince Hamzah of Jordan, son of King Hussein of Jordan, and Princess Noor bint Asem of Jordan
The couple were initially married in a private ceremony on August 29, 2003 at the Al Baraka Palace in Amman. They divorced in September 2009.
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Hamzah of Jordan
Wikipedia: Princess Noor bint Asem

 

Information about the upcoming Christening of Prince Oscar of Sweden

Monogram of Prince Oscar of Sweden, Duke of Skåne. source: Swedish Royal Court

Monogram of Prince Oscar of Sweden, Duke of Skåne. source: Swedish Royal Court

The Swedish Royal Court has today released details about the Christening of Prince Oscar of Sweden, Duke of Skåne, the son of Crown Princess Victoria and Prince Daniel.  Prince Oscar is the fourth grandchild of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, and is third in the line of succession to the Swedish throne.

The christening will be held tomorrow, May 27, 2016, in the Royal Chapel at the Royal Palace of Stockholm. The Crown Princess and Prince Daniel have chosen the following godparents for their son:

The Crown Prince couples of Denmark and Norway will be the only foreign royalty in attendance.

In conjunction with the christening, the Royal Court also issued Prince Oscar’s coat of arms and monogram.

Coat of Arms of Prince Oscar of Sweden, Duke of Skåne, as designed by Henrik Dahlström, heraldic artist, the National Archives. source: Swedish Royal Court

Coat of Arms of Prince Oscar of Sweden, Duke of Skåne, as designed by Henrik Dahlström, heraldic artist, the National Archives. source: Swedish Royal Court

Royal News: Thursday 26 May 2016

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May 26: Today in Royal History

Victoria Mary of Teck, Queen of the United Kingdom; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 26, 946 – Murder of King Edmund I of England in Pucklechurch, South Gloucestershire, England; buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset, England
Wikipedia: King Edmund I of England

May 26, 1796 – Birth of Prince Alois II of Liechtenstein in Vienna, Austria
Wikipedia: Prince Alois II of Liechtenstein

May 26, 1822 – Birth of Augusta Reuss of Köstritz, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Wikipedia: Augusta Reuss of Köstritz, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

May 26, 1826 – Birth of Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia, first wife of Grand Duke Adolphe I of Luxembourg, in the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia
Elizabeth died at age 18 in childbirth along with her baby daughter.  Her husband had an Orthodox church built for her remains.  The church was built on a hill which was visible from Adolphe’s residence so he could always see where Elizabeth’s remains were buried.
Wikipedia: Elizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia

May 26, 1842 – Wedding of King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: King Christian IX of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Louise of Hesse-Kassel

May 26, 1867 – Birth of Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, wife of King George V of the United Kingdom, at Kensington Palace in London, England
Full name: Victoria Mary Augusta Louisa Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes
Unofficial Royalty: Mary of Teck, Queen of the United Kingdom

May 26, 1896 – Coronation of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia in Moscow, Russia
Royal Russia: The Coronation of Nicholas II

May 26, 1968 – Birth of Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark at the Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark
Full name: Frederik André Henrik Christian
Unofficial Royalty: Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark

May 26, 1989 – Death of Kazuko Takatsukasa, daughter of Emperor Hirohito of Japan
Kazuko, Princess Taka was the elder sister of the current Emperor Akihito. She lost her Imperial status upon marriage.
Wikipedia: Kazuko Takatsukasa

 

Elizabeth of York, Queen of England

by Susan Flantzer

Credit – Wikipedia

Elizabeth of York holds a unique position in British royal history. She was the daughter of King Edward IV, the sister of King Edward V, the niece of King Richard III, the wife of King Henry VII, the mother of King Henry VIII, and the grandmother of King Edward VI, Queen Mary I and Queen Elizabeth I. Her great granddaughter was Mary, Queen of Scots whose son, King James VI of Scotland, succeeded Queen Elizabeth I as King James I of England. Through this line, the British royal family and other European royal families can trace their descent from Elizabeth of York.

Born on February 11, 1466 at the Palace of Westminster, Elizabeth of York was the eldest child of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. Edward IV was the eldest surviving son of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York who had a strong claim to the English throne. The social and financial troubles that followed the Hundred Years’ War, combined with the mental disability and weak rule of the Lancastrian King Henry VI had revived interest in the claim of Richard, 3rd Duke of York. Hence, the Wars of the Roses were fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, the House of Lancaster and the House of York between 1455 and 1487. Richard, 3rd Duke of York was killed on December 30, 1460 at the Battle of Wakefield and his son Edward was then the leader of the House of York. After winning a decisive victory on March 2, 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross, 19 year-old Edward proclaimed himself king. In 1464, King Edward IV married Elizabeth Woodville and their first child, Elizabeth, was born two years later.

Elizabeth had nine siblings:

Elizabeth was christened at Westminster Abbey in a solemn ceremony. Her godparents were her grandmothers Jacquetta of Luxembourg and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, and her father’s first cousin, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.  In October 1470, thanks to Elizabeth’s godfather Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick switching from the Yorkist faction to the Lancastrian faction, Henry VI was restored to the throne. Edward IV and his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester (the future Richard III) fled to Flanders, part of Burgundy, where their sister Margaret was married to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.  Four-year old Elizabeth went into sanctuary at Westminster Abbey with her pregnant mother and her younger sisters Mary and Cecily. While in sanctuary, Elizabeth’s brother Edward (the future Edward V) was born. By April 1471, Elizabeth’s father was back on the throne, and a month later King Henry VI was murdered in the Tower of London.

By the time of the early death in 1483 of King Edward IV at the age of 40, Elizabeth had been promised in marriage to George Neville, 1st Duke of Bedford and the future King Charles VIII of France, but nothing came of either promise. When King Edward IV died and his twelve year old son succeeded him as King Edward V, Edward IV’s brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was named Lord Protector of his young nephew and moved to keep the Woodvilles, the family of Edward IV’s widow Elizabeth Woodville, from exercising power. The widowed queen sought to gain political power for her family by appointing family members to key positions and rushing the coronation of her young son. The new king was being accompanied to London by his maternal uncle Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers and his half brother Sir Richard Grey. Rivers and Grey were accused of planning to assassinate Richard, were arrested, and taken to Pontefract Castle, where they were later executed without trial. Richard then proceeded with the new king to London where Edward V was presented to the Lord Mayor of London. For their safety, King Edward V and his nine year old brother Richard, Duke of York were sent to the Tower of London and never seen again.

On June 22, 1483, a sermon was preached at St. Paul’s Cross in London declaring Edward IV’s marriage to Elizabeth Woodville invalid and his children illegitimate. This information apparently came from Robert Stillington, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, who claimed a legal pre-contract of marriage to Eleanor Butler, invalidated the king’s later marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. The citizens of London presented Richard a petition urging him to assume the throne, and he was proclaimed king on June 26, 1483. King Richard III and his wife Anne were crowned in Westminster Abbey on July 6, 1483 and their son was created Prince of Wales. In January of 1484, Parliament issued the Titulus Regius, a statute proclaiming Richard the rightful king. Shortly thereafter, Elizabeth’s mother and Margaret Beaufort, the mother of the Lancastrian leader Henry Tudor still in exile in Brittany, made a secret agreement that their children should marry.

On August 22, 1485, Henry Tudor defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field and became King Henry VII, the first Tudor king of England. Elizabeth of York and Henry married on January 18, 1486 at Westminster Abbey. Henry had Parliament repeal Titulus Regius, the act that declared King Edward IV’s marriage invalid and his children illegitimate, thereby legitimizing his wife. The Tudor Rose, a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York, symbolized the new House of Tudor.

The Tudor Rose; Credit – Wikipedia

Double Portrait of Elizabeth of York and Henry VII; Credit – Wikipedia

Children of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York:

Henry VII’s family: At left, Henry VII, with Arthur, Prince of Wales behind him, then Henry (later Henry VIII), and Edmund, who did not survive early childhood. To the right is Elizabeth of York, with Margaret, then Elizabeth who didn’t survive childhood, Mary, and Katherine, who died shortly after her birth; Credit – Wikipedia

Unlike her mother Elizabeth Woodville and her mother-in-law Margaret Beaufort, Elizabeth had no political ambitions and played her role as wife and mother. Many historians believe that Elizabeth was overshadowed by her dominant mother-in-law (who outlived both her son and daughter-in-law). Nevertheless, Elizabeth was a very popular queen and having numerous children with whom she secured the new Tudor dynasty made her even more popular.

Her firstborn son was born in Winchester, then identified as the site of Camelot, and named Arthur after the legendary king. In 1501, Arthur married Catherine of Aragon, the youngest daughter of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Five months later 15 year-old Arthur was dead, probably of the sweating sickness, and his parents were devastated. Elizabeth comforted her husband who was not only in mourning for his son, but also in fear for his dynasty by saying, “Your mother never had more children than you, but God in His grace, always sheltered you and brought to where you are now. God has left you a handsome prince and two beautiful princesses. We both are still young and can have more children.”

Arthur, Prince of Wales; Credit – Wikipedia

Shortly after Arthur’s death, Elizabeth became pregnant again and hoped for a son. She spent that year preparing her daughter Margaret, who was to marry King James IV of Scotland, for her role as Queen of Scotland. In early 1503, Elizabeth spent her confinement at the Tower of London. On February 2, 1503, she gave birth to a daughter, Katherine. Shortly after giving birth, Elizabeth became ill with puerperal fever (child-bed fever) and died on February 11, 1503, her 37th birthday. Henry was so shaken by her death that he went into seclusion and would only see his mother. Little Katherine died on February 18, 1503.

In 2012, an illuminated manuscript (see below) that was once the property of Henry VII was discovered in the National Library of Wales. King Henry VII is shown in mourning clothes, receiving the book containing the manuscript. In the background, behind their father, are his daughters, Mary and Margaret, in black veils. On the top left, an 11-year-old future King Henry VIII is shown weeping into the sheets of his mother’s empty bed.

Credit – Wikipedia

Elizabeth received a dignified state funeral in Westminster Abbey in the presence of her sisters. On her coffin was a wooden effigy, modeled on Elizabeth, wearing the insignia of the queen. The funeral procession was led by her sister Catherine of York. All of London mourned the popular queen. In the Cheapside section of London, groups of 37 young women with green wreaths in their hair and candles in their hands paraded through the streets. Candles lit in Elizabeth’s memory were burning in all the churches. Thomas More, who was a 25 year-old lawyer at the time and would later be beheaded during the reign of Elizabeth’s son Henry VIII, wrote an elegy in honor of the late Queen, “A Rueful Lamentation.”  Each February 11, King Henry VII decreed that a requiem mass be sung, bells be tolled, and 100 candles be lit in honor of Elizabeth of York.

Elizabeth’s painted wood funeral effigy, 1503 in Westminster Abbey; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

King Henry VII died at Richmond Palace on April 21, 1509 at the age of 52. He lies buried with his wife Elizabeth in a tomb created by Italian artist Pietro Torrigiano in the Henry VII Chapel in Westminster Abbey.

Tomb of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York; Photo Credit – englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.com

Wikipedia: Elizabeth of York

 

Royal News: Wednesday 25 May 2016

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May 25: Today in Royal History

King Abdullah I of Jordan; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 25, 1553 – Wedding of Lady Jane Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley at Durham House in London, England
Unofficial Royalty: Lady Jane Grey
Wikipedia: Lord Guildford Dudley

May 25, 1690 – Birth of Prince Johann Josef Adam of Liechtenstein in Vienna, Austria
Wikipedia: Prince Johann Josef Adam of Liechtenstein

May 25, 1786 – Death of King Pedro III of Portugal, husband and uncle of Queen Maria I of Portugal, co-reigned alongside her until his death; buried at the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon
Wikipedia: King Pedro III of Portugal

May 25, 1846 – Birth of Princess Helena of the United Kingdom, daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Buckingham Palace
Full name: Helena Augusta Victoria
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Helena of the United Kingdom

May 25, 1865 – Birth of Frederick Augustus III, last King of Saxony
Wikipedia: Frederick Augustus III, King of Saxony

May 25, 1946 – Abdullah bin al-Hussein becomes King of Jordan
King Abdullah I was the grandfather of  King Hussein I.
Wikipedia: Abdullah I of Jordan

May 25, 1961 – Wedding of King Hussein I of Jordan and Antoinette Gardiner, in Amman, Jordan
This was King Hussein’s second marriage. Miss Gardiner became HRH Princess Muna al-Hussein. The couple are the parents of the current King, Abdullah II.
Unofficial Royalty: King Hussein I of Jordan
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Muna al-Hussein

May 25, 1961 – Civil Marriage of Princess Birgitta of Sweden and Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern, at the Royal Palace, Stockholm
Princess Birgitta is the elder sister of King Carl XVI Gustaf. Due to her ‘equal’ marriage, she is the only of the King’s sisters who remained a member of the Royal Court.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Birgitta of Sweden
Wikipedia: Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern

May 25, 1966 – Birth of Petra Laurentien Brinkhorst, wife of Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands, in Leiden, The Netherlands
Unofficial Royalty: Laurentien Brinkhorst, Princess of the Netherlands

May 25, 1983 – Death of Idris, first and only King of Libya,
Unofficial Royalty: Idris, King of Libya

Royal News: Tuesday 24 May 2016

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May 24: Today in Royal History

Queen Victoria with her mother; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 24, 1141 – Birth of King Malcolm IV of Scotland
Wikipedia Malcolm IV of Scotland

May 24, 1153 – Death of King David I of Scotland at Carlisle, Cumbria; buried at Dunfermline Abbey in Fife, Scotland
Wikipedia: David I of Scotland

May 24, 1819 – Birth of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom at Kensington Palace in London, England
Full name: Alexandrina Victoria
Unofficial Royalty: Victoria of the United Kingdom

May 24, 1874 – Birth of Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, at Neues Palais in Darmstadt, Germany
Full name: Marie Viktoria Feodore Leopoldine
Known as May, she was the daughter of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.  She died of diphtheria at age four.  Her mother succumbed to the same disease a couple of weeks later.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine

May 24, 1913 – Wedding of Prince Ernst Augustus of Hanover and Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia
Viktoria Luise was the only daughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor. She and Ernst Augustus are the grandparents of King Constantine II of Greece and Queen Sofia of Spain.
Wikipedia: Ernst Augustus of Hanover
Wikipedia: Viktoria Luise of Prussia

May 24, 1935 – Wedding of King Frederik IX of Denmark and Princess Ingrid of Sweden at Storkyrkan in Stockholm, Sweden
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Frederik IX of Denmark and Ingrid of Sweden
Unofficial Royalty: Frederik IX of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Ingrid of Sweden

May 24, 1995 – Birth of Prince Joseph Wenzel of Liechtenstein, eldest son of Hereditary Prince Alois, in London, England
Full name: Joseph Wenzel Maximilian Maria
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Joseph Wenzel of Liechtenstein

May 24, 2002 – Wedding of Princess Märtha Louise of Norway and Ari Behn at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, Norway
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Märtha Louise of Norway
Unofficial Royalty: Ari Behn

May 24, 2008 – Wedding of Prince Joachim of Denmark and Marie Cavallier at Møgeltønder Church near Schackenborg Castle in Møgeltønder, Southern Jutland, Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Joachim of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Marie Cavallier