May 1916: Royalty and World War I

by Susan Flantzer

Rear Admiral The Honorable Sir Horace Hood

Horace_Hood_WWI_May 1916

Rear Admiral The Honorable Sir Horace Hood; Photo Credit – http://www.dreadnoughtproject.org

For two days, May 31 – June 1, 1916, the Battle of Jutland was fought in the North Sea near Denmark’s Jutland peninsula between the British Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet and the Imperial German Navy’s High Seas Fleet. A total of 250 ships were engaged in the battle, with fourteen British and eleven German ships sunk. 9,823 men were killed in the battle, 6,784 British and 3,039 German. One of those causalities was Rear Admiral The Honorable Sir Horace Hood who died when the HMS Invincible sunk during the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea with the loss of all but six men.

The Honorable Horace Lambert Alexander Hood was born in London, England on October 2, 1870, the fourth of the eight children of Francis Wheler Hood, 4th Viscount Hood of Whitley and Edith Lydia Drummond Ward.  The peerage Viscount Hood was created for Horace’s great-great-grandfather Admiral Samuel Hood, who was known for his service in the Royal Navy during American Revolutionary War and French Revolutionary Wars, and for acting as a mentor to the naval hero Horatio Nelson.

Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood; Credit – Wikipedia

Horace’s seven siblings:

Horace’s career in the Royal Navy began when he was only 12 years old as he started his cadet training on the HMS Britannia at Dartmouth, England. Three years later, he graduated at the top of his class and joined the HMS Temeraire as a midshipman. In 1890, Horace set a record score for his examinations for his promotion to lieutenant. He scored 4398 points out of a possible 4600 points. Horace saw service on the Nile in 1897-1898 and in Somaliland in 1903-1904.

Beginning in 1906, Horace spent time in Washington, DC as the naval attaché to the British Embassy. In 1910, he became Captain of the Royal Naval College at Osborne and two years later was made a naval aide-de-camp to King George V. Horace was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1913 and in June 1914 he became naval secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. After the onset of World War I, Horace took command of a small naval force assisting the British and Belgian armies in trying to prevent the German navy from advancing towards ports on the British Channel. In May 1915, he took command of the 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet aboard his flagship the HMS Invincible.

During his time in Washington, DC, Horace met an American widow with a young daughter,   Ellen Touzalin Nickerson. On January 19, 1910, Horace and Ellen were married, and the couple had two sons. Upon the death of their father in 1907, Horace’s brother Grosvenor had succeeded their father as the 5th Viscount Hood. Grosvenor’s two marriages were childless,  and Horace was the heir presumptive to the peerage until his death in 1916. After Horace’s death, his elder son Samuel was the heir presumptive to the peerage and succeeded his uncle as the 6th Viscount Hood in 1933. Samuel never married, so upon his death his brother Alexander became the 7th Viscount Hood. The current Viscount Hood, Henry Lyttelton Alexander Hood, 8th Viscount Hood of Whitley, is Horace’s grandson.

Children of Horace and Ellen:

Horace was knighted posthumously and Ellen was granted the style of a knight’s wife, Lady Hood, for the remainder of her life. She never remarried and died in 1950. Her daughter Katherine Nickerson from her first marriage married Walter Ernest Christopher James, 4th Baron Northbourne of Betteshanger .

by Bassano, whole-plate glass negative, 16 February 1922

Ellen Hood (née Touzalin) by Bassano Ltd, whole-plate glass negative, 16 February 1922 NPG x121328 © National Portrait Gallery, London

The Battle of Jutland was the largest naval battle during World War I. The British objective was to destroy the German High Seas Fleet or at the least, to keep the German force contained and away from British shipping lanes. Because the German Imperial Navy was insufficient to engage the entire British fleet, the German objective was to lure, trap and destroy a portion of the British Grand Fleet.

HMS Invincible; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

Rear Admiral Horace Hood was aboard the battlecruiser HMS Invincible, the first battlecruiser to be built by any country in the world, leading the three ships of the Third Battle Cruiser Squadron. During the battle, the HMS Invincible was hit in her “Q” turret by a round of fire from the German battlecruiser SMS Lützow, causing a massive explosion. The ship broke in two and sank in 90 seconds with the loss of all but six of the crew of 1,026, including Rear Admiral Horace Hood.

HMS Invincible exploding at Jutland, taken from a destroyer nearby; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

The two shattered halves of HMS Invincible temporarily standing on the seabed; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

The remains of the HMS Invincible and its crew are at the bottom of the North Sea, and the site is a protected war grave. Horace Hood’s name along with the names of members of the Royal Navy who died in World War I with no known grave are inscribed on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial.  In 1918, Horace’s widow launched the battlecruiser HMS Hood, named after Horace’s great-great-grandfather Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood. During World War II, the HMS Hood was sunk by the German battleship Bismarck.  Of the 1415 aboard, only three survived.

Porstmouth Naval Memorial; Photo Credit – By Martyn Pattison, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9130746

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Timeline: May 1, 1916 – May 31, 1916

May 7 – 10Battle of Kondoa Irangi in Kondoa Irangi, German East Africa (now in Tanzania)
May 10 – Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare
May 15 – June 10Battle of Asiago at the Asiago plateau in Veneto, Italy
May 16Signing of the Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France defining their proposed spheres in the Middle East
May 31 – June 1Battle of Jutland between Britain’s Grand Fleet and Germany’s Hochseeflotte

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A Note About German Titles

Many German royals and nobles died in World War I. The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent states, most of them ruled by royal families. Scroll down to German Empire here to see what constituent states made up the German Empire.  The constituent states retained their own governments, but had limited sovereignty. Some had their own armies, but the military forces of the smaller ones were put under Prussian control. In wartime, armies of all the constituent states would be controlled by the Prussian Army and the combined forces were known as the Imperial German Army.  German titles may be used in Royals Who Died In Action below. Refer to Unofficial Royalty: Glossary of German Noble and Royal Titles.

24 British peers were also killed in World War I and they will be included in the list of those who died in action. In addition, more than 100 sons of peers also lost their lives, and those that can be verified will also be included.

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May 1916 – Royals/Nobles/Peers/Sons of Peers Who Died In Action

The list is in chronological order and does contain some who would be considered noble instead of royal. The links in the last bullet for each person is that person’s genealogical information from Leo’s Genealogics Website or to The Peerage website.  If a person has a Wikipedia page, their name will be linked to that page.

Freiherr Karl von Moreau

Midshipman The Honorable Bernard Michael Bailey

Lieutenant Commander The Honorable Hugh Cecil Robert Feilding

Rear Admiral The Honorable Sir Horace Lambert Alexander Hood

Midshipman The Honorable Cecil Richard Molyneux

Commander Henry Ernest Digby Hugh Willoughby

Commander The Honorable Lionel Henry Shore

  • son of Henry Noel Shore, 5th Baron Teignmouth and Mary Aglionby Porteus
  • born November 18, 1882
  • killed in action on May 31, 1916, age 33, when the HMS Invincible sunk during the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea with the loss of all but six men

Royal Birthdays & Anniversaries: May 1-May 7

Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg with his wife, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

53rd birthday of Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, son of Grand Duke Jean; born at Betzdorf Castle on May 1, 1963
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg

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Lady Sarah Chatto, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

52nd birthday of Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, daughter of Princess Margaret of the United Kingdom; born at Kensington Palace in London on May 1, 1964
Full name: Sarah Frances Elizabeth
Unofficial Royalty: Lady Sarah Chatto

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1st birthday of Princess Charlotte of Cambridge, daughter of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge; born at St. Mary’s Hospital in Paddington, London, England on May 2, 2015
Full name: Charlotte Elizabeth Diana
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Charlotte of Cambridge

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Princess Haya bint Hussein, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

42nd birthday of Princess Haya bint Hussein, daughter of King Hussein of Jordan and his third wife Queen Alia al-Hussein; born in Amman, Jordan on May 3, 1974
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Haya bint Hussein

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Pauline Ducruet, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

22nd birthday of Pauline Ducruet, daughter of Princess Stephanie of Monaco; born at Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace in Monte Carlo, Monaco on May 4, 1994
Full name: Pauline Grace Maguy
Wikipedia: Pauline Ducruet

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7th birthday of Prince Henrik of Denmark, son of Prince Joachim; born at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark on May 4, 2009
Full name: Henrik Carl Joachim Alain
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Henrik of Denmark

May 1: Today in Royal History

Isabel of Portugal, wife of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 1, 1118 – Death of Edith of Scotland, first wife of King Henry I of England, at the Palace of Westminster; buried at Westminster Abbey
Wikipedia: Edith of Scotland

May 1, 1238 – Birth of King Magnus VI of Norway
Wikipedia: Magnus VI of Norway

May 1, 1464 – Wedding of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville in Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire, England (traditional date)
Wikipedia: Edward IV of England
Wikipedia: Elizabeth Woodville

May 1, 1539 – Death of Isabel of Portugal, wife of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Toldeo, Spain; buried at the Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real in El Escorial, Spain
Wikipedia: Isabel of Portugal

May 1, 1707 – Acts of Union takes effect: Kingdom of England & Kingdom of Scotland form the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Wikipedia: Acts of Union

May 1, 1850 – Birth of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Buckingham Palace
Full name: Arthur William Patrick Albert
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught

May 1, 1920 – Death of Margaret of Connaught, wife of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, at the Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden; buried at Royal Burial Ground in Haga north of Stockholm
Unofficial Royalty: Margaret of Connaught, Crown Princess of Sweden

May 1, 1963 – Birth of Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, son of Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg, at Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg

May 1, 1964 – Birth of Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, daughter of Princess Margaret of the United Kingdom, at Kensington Palace in London, England
Full name: Sarah Frances Elizabeth
Unofficial Royalty: Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones

Royal News: Saturday 30 April 2016

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April 30: Today in Royal History

Princess Mary, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom at age 80, on right, with Queen Victoria, Princess Alice and the Prince of Wales (future Edward VII); Photo Credit – Wikipedia

April 30, 1245 – Birth of King Philip III of France in Poissy, France
Wikipedia: Philip III of France

April 30, 1290 – Wedding of Joan of Acre, daughter of King Edward I of England, and Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester and 7th Earl of Hertford, at Westminster Abbey
Wikipedia: Joan of Acre
Wikipedia: Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester and 7th Earl of Hertford

April 30, 1553 – Birth of Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, wife of King Henri III of France, in Nomeny, France
Wikipedia: Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont

April 30, 1632 – Death of King Sigismund III Vasa of Sweden at Warsaw, Poland; buried at the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Stanisław and Vaclav in Warsaw, Poland
Wikipedia: Sigismund III Vasa of Sweden

April 30, 1662 – Birth of Queen Mary II of England at St. James’ Palace in London, England
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Mary II of England

April 30, 1857 – Death of Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom, at Gloucester House in Piccadilly, London, England; buried at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle
Mary was a great favorite with all the members of the royal family particularly with her niece Queen Victoria.  Mary died at age 81, the last survivor of her parents’ 15 children.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester

April 30, 1882 – Death of Marie of Waldeck-Pyrmont, wife of King William II of Württemberg, in Stuttgart, Württemberg (Germany); buried at the Old Cemetery in Ludwigsburg, Württemberg (Germany)
Wikipedia: Marie of Waldeck-Pyrmont

April 30, 1909 – Birth of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, at The Hague, Netherlands
April 30, 1980 – Abdication of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands; her daughter Beatrix becomes queen
Full name: Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina
Unofficial Royalty: Juliana of the Netherlands

April 30, 1939 – Birth of Pieter van Vollenhoven, husband of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, in Schiedam, Netherlands
Wikipedia: Pieter van Vollenhoven

April 30, 1946 – Birth of King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden at Haga Palace in Solna, Sweden
Full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus
Unofficial Royalty: King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden

April 30, 1991 – Death of Ghislaine Marie Francoise Dommanget, wife of Prince Louis II of Monaco; buried at the Cimetiere de Passy in Paris, France
Unofficial Royalty: Ghislaine Marie Francoise Dommanget

April 30, 2013 – Abdication of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands; her son Willem-Alexander becomes King
Unofficial Royalty: Beatrix of the Netherlands
Unofficial Royalty: King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Royal News: Friday 29 April 2016

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Queen Maria II of Portugal

source: WIkipedia

Queen Maria II of Portugal

Queen Maria II of Portugal first became Queen at just seven years old. Deposed two years later, she returned to the throne at age 15 and reigned until her death. She was born Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga on April 4, 1819 at the Imperial Palace in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Maria was the eldest of six children of the future King Pedro IV of Portugal (and Emperor Pedro I of Brazil) and his first wife, Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria. Born in Brazil, Maria is the only European monarch to be born outside of Europe.

She had six siblings:

And one half-sister, from her father’s second marriage to Princess Amélie of Leuchtenberg:

When Maria’s grandfather, King João VI of Portugal, died in March 1826, it caused a succession crisis. His eldest living son, and heir, was Maria’s father Pedro, but he had declared Brazil’s independence and was ruling as Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. The King had appointed his daughter, Isabel Maria, to serve as regent until the “legitimate heir returned to the Kingdom”. But, he never specified who that should be. Pedro, was ruling as Emperor of Brazil, and the king’s younger son, Miguel, had been exiled to Austria after leading several revolutions against his father and his liberal regime.

While Pedro was the legitimate heir, the Brazilian people didn’t want the two thrones to be reunited. Pedro abdicated the Portuguese throne on May 2, 1826, and Maria became Queen of Portugal at just seven years old. As part of the agreement, Miguel would return to Portugal and serve as Regent (once he himself reached age 25), and would be married to Maria once she came of age. This would all be under a new liberal constitution which would re-establish a constitutional monarchy. In July 1827, with Infanta Isabella Maria very ill, and the regency very unstable, a decree was issued, granting Miguel his new role as Regent, and he set out for Portugal.

Queen Maria II, c1833. source: Wikipedia

With Miguel serving as Regent, Maria was sent to Vienna to continue her education. It was on this journey that Maria learned that Miguel had deposed her and declared himself King on June 23, 1828. Emperor Pedro insisted that his daughter was the rightful Queen, and demanded that she be treated as such. She traveled to the United Kingdom, hoping to garner support of the British government, but they instead supported Miguel. She met up with her father in France, where they stayed with King Louis Philippe I, and Maria received her education. For the next six years, forces loyal to Maria and her father would try to force Miguel from the throne. In 1831, Emperor Pedro abdicated the Brazilian throne, and joined the fight. Finally, on May 26, 1834, Miguel was forced to abdicate, and Maria was returned to the Portuguese throne. Her betrothal to Miguel was annulled several months later.

On January 26, 1835, Maria married Auguste de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg. He was the son of Eugène de Beauharnais (a son of Empress Josephine) and Princess Augusta of Bavaria. Sadly, Auguste died just two months later.

Queen Maria with her eldest son, the future King Pedro V. source: Wikipedia

In Lisbon, on April 9, 1836, Maria was married to Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Ferdinand was the son of Prince Ferdinand Georg of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág. Through his father, he was a first cousin of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and her future husband, Prince Albert, as well as King Leopold II of Belgium and Empress Carlota of Mexico. Maria and Ferdinand had 11 children:

Queen Maria II, c1852, painted by Sir William Charles Ross. Source: Wikipedia

On November 15, 1853, just after giving birth to her youngest child, Queen Maria II died at the Palace of Necessidades in Lisbon. She is buried at the Royal Pantheon of the House of Braganza at the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora in Lisbon.

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April 29: Today in Royal History

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton; Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

April 29, 1818 – Birth of Tsar Alexander II of Russia at the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia
Unofficial Royalty: Tsar Alexander II of Russia

April 29, 1901 – Birth of Emperor Hirohito of Japan in the Aoyama Palace in Tokyo, Japan
Wikipedia: Hirohito of Japan

April 29, 1944 – Birth of Princess Benedikte of Denmark, daughter of King Frederik IX of Denmark, sister of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark
Full name: Benedikte Astrid Ingeborg Ingrid
Unofficial Royalty: Benedikte of Denmark

April 29, 1964 – Wedding of Princess Irene of the Netherlands and Prince Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma at the Borghese Chapel at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, Italy
The couple divorced in 1981.
Unofficial Royalty: Irene of the Netherlands
Wikipedia: Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma

April 29, 2003 – Birth of Maud Angelica Behn, daughter of Princess Märtha Louise of Norway, in Oslo, Norway
Unofficial Royalty: Maud Angelica Behn (scroll down)

April 29, 2007 – Birth of Infanta Sofia of Spain, daughter of King Felipe VI of Spain, at the Ruber International Clinic in Madrid, Spain
Full name: Sofía de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Ortiz
Unofficial Royalty: Infanta Sofia of Spain

April 29, 2011 – Wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
Unofficial Royalty: Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Unofficial Royalty: Catherine Middleton, Duchess of Cambridge

Royal News: Thursday 28 April 2016

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April 28: Today in Royal History

King Edward IV of England; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

April 28, 1442 – Birth of King Edward IV of England in Rouen, France
Wikipedia: Edward IV of England

April 28, 1950 – Wedding of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and Sirikit Kitiyakara at Srapathum Palace in Bangkok, Thailand
Unofficial Royalty: King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand
Unofficial Royalty: Sirikit Kitiyakara
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and Sirikit Kitiyakara

April 28, 1964 – Birth of Lady Helen Windsor, daughter of Prince George, Duke of Kent, at Coppins, a country house in Iver, Buckinghamshire, England
Full name: Helen Marina Lucy
Wikipedia: Lady Helen Windsor