Royal News: Wednesday 27 July 2016

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King Richard II of England

by Susan Flantzer

Credit – Wikipedia

King Richard II of England was born in the Archbishop’s Palace in Bordeaux, then in the English-held Duchy of Aquitaine (now in France) on January 6, 1367. Because of his birthplace, he was known as Richard of Bordeaux. Richard was the second son and second child of Edward, Prince of Wales (known as the Black Prince), eldest son and heir of King Edward III of England, and Joan of Kent, 4th Countess of Kent in her own right. Joan was a grandchild of King Edward I of England. Her father was Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, a son from Edward I’s second marriage. Richard had one elder sibling, Edward of Angoulême (1365 – 1370), who died young of the plague. After his elder brother’s death, Richard became the second in the line of succession to the throne after his father.

Edward of Angoulême and his mother Joan of Kent, depicted on the Wilton Diptych; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard had five half siblings from his mother’s first marriage to Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, 2nd Baron Holland

Edward, Prince of Wales (the Black Prince), Richard’s father, was King Edward III’s representative in Aquitaine, and the king had created Edward and his wife Joan Prince and Princess of Aquitaine. Richard had been born in Aquitaine, but his family returned to England in 1371, shortly after his brother’s death. When in England, the chief residences of Edward’s family were at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (since 1974 in Oxfordshire), and at Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire. The Black Prince was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battle of Crécy and the Battle of Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348, he became the first Knight of the Garter and was one of the order’s 25 founders.

Edward, Prince of Wales as Knight of the Order of the Garter, illustration from the Bruges Garter Book; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s father entrusted his son’s education to his boyhood friend Sir Simon de Burley, who instilled in Richard a love of literature and music as well as a sense of the importance of his royal office. Richard was the first English monarch who was fluent in English as well as the traditional Norman French of his ancestors. While in the midst of his childhood, nine year old Richard’s life changed when his father died at the age of 45 on June 8, 1376. Richard was now the heir to his grandfather’s throne. Because it was feared that Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt might usurp his place in the succession, Richard was quickly created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester. On June 21, 1377, King Edward III died and his ten year old grandson was now King Richard II.

King Richard II of England with his court after his coronation; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s coronation took place on July 16, 1377 at Westminster Abbey, just eleven days after his grandfather’s funeral. The quickness with which all this happened was certainly affected by the controversial succession of a child king whose father had not been the king. Some believed that one of King Edward III’s younger sons (there were three still alive: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester) should be king. Parliament, who was in a dispute with John of Gaunt at that time, supported Richard’s accession to the throne. John of Gaunt and his two brothers were excluded from councils which ruled during Richard’s minority, but as the uncles of the king, they still held great informal influence over the business of government. By 1380, the councils were abolished because Parliament distrusted Richard’s friends and councilors, particularly his tutor Sir Simon de Burley and Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, Marquess of Dublin, and 9th Earl of Oxford.  The uncertainty in the matter of Richard II’s succession laid the groundwork for the Wars of the Roses when the House of York and the House of Lancaster battled for the English throne.

Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1381, the Peasants’ Revolt led by Wat Tyler occurred over a poll tax of a shilling on all people over the age of 15. The revolt had started in Kent and Essex, but ultimately came to London where John of Gaunt’s Savoy Palace was burned down and the Archbishop of Canterbury Simon Sudbury, who was also Lord Chancellor, and the Lord High Treasurer Robert Hales were both killed by the rebels. 14 year old Richard rode out to Mile End in London to meet the rebels. Addressing the rebels in English, Richard agreed to their demands. This did not pacify the rebels and they continued the burning, looting, and killing. The next day, Richard met the rebel leader Wat Tyler at Smithfield in London and again agreed to meet their demands. However, the rebels were not convinced, the king’s men grew uneasy, and an altercation occurred in which Wat Tyler was pulled off his horse and killed. Richard, acting calmly, led the rebel mob away from the scene, granted clemency and allowed the rebels to disperse and return to their homes. When disturbances occurred in other parts of England, Richard revoked his agreement and the clemency and went to Essex to personally defeat the last rebels. At his young age, Richard did show courage and determination in ending the rebellion. However, he saw the danger of his subjects’ disobedience which threatened his authority and this helped shape his ideas of absolute monarchy which would later prove literally fatal.

Richard II watches Wat Tyler’s death and addresses the peasants in the background: taken from the Gruuthuse manuscript of Froissart’s Chroniques (c. 1475); Credit – Wikipedia

When Richard was 15, a bride was sought for him, and Anne of Bohemia, the eldest child of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, and his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania, seemed a logical choice as Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire were seen as potential allies against France in the ongoing Hundred Years’ War. However, the potential marriage was unpopular with the nobility and members of Parliament because Anne brought no dowry. Richard’s tutor and his father’s close friend Sir Simon de Burley was sent to negotiate the marriage contract and then escort the 15 year old bride to be to England. After Anne arrived in Dover, England, a huge wave wrecked the ship in which she had sailed, and this was seen as a bad omen. The young couple were married at Westminster Abbey on January 22, 1382, the fifth royal wedding at the Abbey. It was not until the wedding of Princess Patricia of Connaught, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, and Alexander Ramsay in 1919, 537 years later, that another royal wedding was held at Westminster Abbey. Richard and Anne had no children.

Anne of Bohemia with her husband King Richard II of England; Credit: Wikipedia

Since 1337, England had been fighting France in the Hundred Years’ War, and the English had been consistently losing territory to the French since 1369. Richard wanted to negotiate peace with France, but much of the nobility wanted to continue the war. In 1386, Parliament blamed Richard’s advisers for the military failures and accused them of misusing funds intended for the war. Parliament authorized a commission of nobles known as the Lords Appellant to take over management of the kingdom and act as Richard’s regents. There were originally three Lords Appellant: Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, son of Edward III and Richard’s uncle; Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick. Later, Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby (son of John of Gaunt, Richard’s first cousin and the future King Henry IV) and Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk also became Lords Appellant. Richard did not recognize the authority of the Lords Appellant and started an unsuccessful military attempt to overthrow the Lords Appellant and negotiate peace with France. In 1387, the Lords Appellant launched an armed rebellion against King Richard and defeated an army under Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford at the Battle of Radcot Bridge, outside Oxford. They maintained Richard as a figurehead with little real power. Parliament convicted almost all of Richard’s advisers of treason. Most of Richard’s advisers were executed and a few were exiled.

Depiction of Mowbray, Arundel, Gloucester, Derby and Warwick demanding of Richard II that he let them prove by arms the justice of their rebellion; Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt had left England in 1386 to seek the throne of Castile, claimed by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. Because of the crisis in England, in 1389, Richard’s uncle and now his supporter, John of Gaunt, returned from Castile and Richard was able to rebuild his power gradually until 1397, when he reasserted his authority and destroyed the principal three among the Lords Appellant.

Richard never forgave the Lords Appellant. His uncle Thomas, Duke Gloucester was murdered in captivity in Calais, probably on Richard’s orders. Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel was beheaded. Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick lost his title and his lands, and was imprisoned on the Isle of Man until Richard was overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke. Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk were both exiled in 1399 and Richard revoked the permission he had given them to sue for any inheritance which fell due, as it did in relation to Mowbray’s grandmother and, more significantly, of Bolingbroke’s father, John of Gaunt. The actions Richard took against his first cousin would ultimately result in his downfall.

In June of 1394, Queen Anne became ill with the plague while at Sheen Palace with her husband. She died three days later on June 7, 1394 at the age of 28. King Richard II was so devastated by Anne’s death that he ordered Sheen Palace to be destroyed. For almost 20 years it lay in ruins until King Henry V started a rebuilding project in 1414. With Richard being childless, the heir presumptive to the throne was Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March who was the grandson of Richard’s deceased uncle Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence. Lionel of Antwerp was the second son of King Edward III so his heirs had superior genealogical claim to the throne over that of Edward III’s third son John of Gaunt. Despite the fact that Richard officially recognized the claim of Roger Mortimer, the claim was unlikely to remain uncontested.

Soon after the death of Anne of Bohemia in 1394, the childless King Richard II began a search for a new wife. He turned to France seeking an alliance, and after negotiations, a marriage was arranged between Isabella of Valois and Richard who was 22 years older than his bride. Isabella was the daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. This marriage had many opponents, especially Louis I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of the French king and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, youngest uncle of the English king. Nevertheless, on November 1, 1396 at the Church of St. Nicholas in Calais, seven year old Isabella married 29 year old Richard. Richard and Isabella left for England a few days later and on November 23, 1396, she made her state entry into London. The couple had no children due to Isabella’s young age. After Richard’s death, Isabella returned to France and married her cousin Charles of Orléans. At the age of 19, she died on September 14, 1409 in Blois, France a few hours after giving birth to her only child.

Richard and Isabella on their wedding day; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1398, Henry Bolingbroke, first cousin of King Richard II and the eldest child of King Edward III’s third son John of Gaunt, quarreled with Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, who accused him of treason. The two men planned to duel, but instead King Richard II banished them from England, and Henry went to France.  John of Gaunt died on February 3, 1399 and Richard confiscated the estates of his uncle and stipulated that Henry would have to ask him to restore the estates. Henry returned to England while his cousin Richard was on a military campaign in Ireland and began a military campaign of his own, confiscating land of those who had opposed him. King Richard II eventually was abandoned by his supporters and was forced by Parliament on September 29, 1399 to abdicate the crown to his cousin Henry. King Henry IV, first king of the House of Lancaster, was crowned in Westminster Abbey of October 13, 1399. Richard was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire where he died on or around February 14, 1400. The exact cause of his death, thought to have been starvation, is unknown.

Richard being taken into custody by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland (Froissart); Credit – Wikipedia

Richard’s body was taken south from Pontefract Castle and displayed in the Old St Paul’s Cathedral in London on February 17, 1400 before burial in Kings Langley Church on March 6, 1400.

King Richard II’s funeral; Credit – Wikipedia

In 1413, King Henry V of England, son of King Henry IV, in an effort to atone for his father’s act of murder and to silence the rumors of Richard’s survival, had Richard’s remains moved to Westminster Abbey where they were placed in an elaborate tomb Richard had constructed for his first wife Anne of Bohemia.

Richard II and Anne of Bohemia tomb from Henry V Chantry

Tomb of King Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia in Westminster Abbey; Photo Credit – http://www.westminster-abbey.org

Wikipedia: King Richard II of England

July 27: Today in Royal History

Louise, Princess Royal and her husband Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 27, 1365 – Wedding of Isabella of England, daughter of King Edward III of England, and Enguerrand VII de Courcy, Earl of Bedford, at Windsor Castle
Wikipedia: Isabella of England
Wikipedia: Enguerrand VII de Courcy

July 27, 1626 – Death of Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Wikipedia: Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt

July 27, 1889 – Wedding of Princess Louise, daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, and Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, at the Private Chapel in Buckingham Palace
Unofficial Royalty: Louise, Princess Royal
Unofficial Royalty: Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife

July 27, 1980 – Death of Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, last Shah of Iran, in Cairo, Egypt, buried at the Al Rifa’i Mosque in Cairo, Egypt
Wikipedia: Mohammed Reza Pahlavi

Royal News: Tuesday 26 July 2016

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July 26: Today in Royal History

King Otto of Greece; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 26, 1469 – Lancastrian victory at the Battle of Edgecote Moor
Wikipedia: Battle of Edgecote Moor

July 26, 1867 – Death of former King Otto of Greece, born Prince Otto of Bavaria, at Neue Residenz in Bamberg, Bavaria (Germany); buried at Theatinerkirche St. Kajetan in Munich, Bavaria (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: King Otto of Greece

July 26, 1944 – Death of Reza Shah Pahlavi, former Shah of Iran and father of the last Shah, in exile in Johannesburg, South Africa; buried at Reza Shah’s Mausoleum in Ray, Tehran, Iran which was later destroyed during the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Wikipedia: Reza Shah Pahlavi

July 26, 1958 – Debutantes presented at the British royal court for the last time
Historic Royal Palaces: The Last Debutantes
Wikipedia: Debutantes – United Kingdom

Royal News: Monday, 25 July 2016

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Daily Mail: Back to where it all began! As they prepare to head to Rio, we look back at Princess Mary and Prince Frederik’s relationship through 16 years of Olympic Games

Monaco
Daily Mail: Princess Charlene steals the limelight in a dreamy lilac and blue gown as she joins Prince Albert at the annual Red Cross gala in Monaco
Daily Mail: Princess Charlene of Monaco looks thinner than ever as she highlights her tiny waist in figure-hugging dress at Monaco gala

Multiple Monarchies
Daily Mail: Royals at the Court of the Olympics
Daily Mail: Rio no-go: Wills, Kate and Harry refuse to attend Olympics ‘because of fears over Zika virus’ but Princess Anne will still be there
Getty Images: In Focus: The Royal Week

UK
ABC News: Prince William and Princess Kate Attend America’s Cup
BBC: Prince Harry ‘regrets not speaking about Princess Diana’s death’
Daily Mail: Her Majesty the Home Secretary: Amber Rudd is a direct descendant of King Charles II and his mistress – who was known for her beauty, promiscuity and foul temper
Daily Mail: Captain Kate sets sail… but her hair is no match for the sea breeze! Dazzling duchess takes to the waves as she and William cheer on Sir Ben Ainslie in the America’s
Daily Mail: Prince William says George got too many birthday gifts
Daily Mail: Three cheers for Prince Gorgeous! From showing off his rosy cheeks in first official Christmas photo to giving his beaming sister a gentle kiss, it’s not hard to see why George is the world’s favorite little royal
Daily Mail: RACHEL JOHNSON: The barking row over George the ‘monarchist monster’ giving Lupo the spaniel an ice cream to lick proves that we should all GET A GRIP!
Daily Mail: Well hello (again) sailor! Kate’s latest meeting with yachting hero Sir Ben Ainslie and she looks jolly pleased to see him
Daily Mail: With this BLING I thee wed! The inside story of an astonishing 10 YEAR campaign by love-struck millionaire trader James Matthews to woo Pippa… and Carole
Daily Record: Prince Harry: I really regret not talking about my mum’s death
Express: ‘Spoilt’ Prince George got ‘too many’ birthday presents, William admits at America’s Cup
Express: Piers Morgan hails ‘extraordinary’ Prince Harry for discussing Princess Diana’s death
Getty Images: Duke And Duchess Of Cambridge At America’s Cup World Series Part 1
Getty Images: Duke And Duchess Of Cambridge At America’s Cup World Series Part 2
Getty Images: Duke And Duchess Of Cambridge At America’s Cup World Series Part 3
Getty Images: Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge and Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Visit The America’s Cup World Series Part 4
Hello: Prince Harry hosts BBQ for Heads Together charity campaign
Hello: Prince William and Kate attend America’s Cup World Series
Hello: ‘He’s far too spoilt’: Prince William jokes about Prince George’s third birthday gifts
Press and Journal: Queen arrives at rural Aberdeenshire church as summer stay begins
Telegraph: Prince Harry assembles top sportspeople at Kensington Palace to help change views on mental health
Telegraph: The Duchess of Cambridge does dress-down Sunday in skinny jeans at the America’s Cup in Portsmouth
Telegraph: Prince George ‘far too spoilt’ on his birthday, Duke of Cambridge says
Telegraph: Royal Swan Upping: Are the Queen’s cygnets disappearing?
Telegraph: Princess’s naked Adam and Eve primer covered up by prudes

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Isabella of France, Queen of England

by Susan Flantzer

Credit – Wikipedia

Wife of King Edward II of England, whom she later helped depose and then probably had murdered, Isabella of France was probably born in Paris in 1295.  She was the sixth child of the seven children of King Philippe IV of France and Joan I, Queen of Navarre in her own right.  Isabella had six siblings:

Isabella’s family in 1315: (left to right) Isabella’s brothers Charles and Philip, Isabella, her father Philip IV, her brother Louis, and her uncle Charles of Valois

Isabella was brought up in the royal palaces in Paris, the medieval Château du Louvre and the Palais de la Cité, where she was brought up by her nurse Théophania de Saint-Pierre and given a good education.  Isabella also learned by observing her parents, both reigning monarchs.  The French royal court was one of the wealthiest and most influential in Europe. Her father Philip IV of France, strengthened the French monarchy with clever financing and administrative reform. Her mother Joan I of  Navarre successfully defended her kingdom twice against the territorial claims of other European princes, and also played an active diplomatic role in the marriages of her children.

As a young child, Isabella was betrothed to the son and heir of King Edward I of England, the future King Edward II, with the intention to resolve the conflicts between France and England over the England’s possession of Gascony and claims to Anjou, Normandy and Aquitaine.  However, King Edward I attempted to break the betrothal  several times and the marriage did not occur until after his death.  Isabella and King Edward II were married on January 25, 1308 in Boulogne, France.  The couple’s coronation was held in Westminster Abbey on February 25, 1308.  Isabella and Edward had four children.

Edward II shown receiving the English crown in a contemporary illustration; Credit – Wikipedia

From the start of her marriage, Isabella was confronted with the close relationship between her husband and Piers Gaveston, described as “an arrogant, ostentatious soldier, with a reckless and headstrong personality.”  The true nature of this relationship is not known and there is no complicit evidence which comments directly on Edward’s sexual orientation.   Gaveston was part of the delegation that welcomed the young couple when they arrived in England after their marriage, and the greeting between Edward and Gaveston was unusually warm.  Edward chose to sit with Gaveston at his wedding festivities rather than his bride, and gave Gaveston part of the jewelry that belonged to Isabelle’s dowry.  Eventually, with the influence of Isabella’s father,  Dowager Queen Margaret, widow of King Edward III and Isabella’s aunt, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Edward agreed to exile Gaveston to Ireland.  However, in a move which angered the barons, Edward made Gaveston  Regent of Ireland.  When Gaveston returned to England in 1312, he was hunted down and executed by a group of barons led by Edward’s uncle Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster and Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick.

From 1312 – 1321, there is no evidence that Edward and Isabelle had a discordant marriage or that Isabella was not loyal to her husband.  Isabella took a role in the reconciliation between Edward and the barons, who were responsible for the execution of Gaveston. However, during this time period, Hugh Despenser the Elder became part of Edward’s inner circle, marking the beginning of the Despensers’ increased prominence at Edward’s court.  His son, Hugh Despenser the Younger, became a favorite of Edward II.  Edward was willing to let the Despensers do as they pleased, and they grew rich from their administration and corruption.

It is thought that Isabella first met and fell in love with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March when he was a prisoner in the Tower of London, which was both a royal palace and a prison at that time.  Isabella arranged for Mortimer’s death sentence to be commuted to life imprisonment.  In 1323, Isabella helped arrange Mortimer’s escape from the Tower and his subsequent flight to France.  During the next year, Isabella had had enough of the Despensers and left Edward, who made an unwise decision to send Isabella and their 12 year old son Edward on a mission to France.  Not surprisingly, Isabella met Mortimer in France where they planned to depose Edward II.  Isabella gathered an army and set sail for England, landing at Harwich on September 25, 1326.  With their with their mercenary army, Isabella and Mortimer quickly seized power. The Despensers were both executed and Edward II was forced to abdicate. Isabella’s son was crowned King Edward III, and Isabella and Mortimer served as regents for the teenage king.

Isabella landing in England with her son, the future Edward III in 1326; Credit – Wikipedia

King Edward II was imprisoned in Berkeley Castle and died there on September 21, 1327, probably murdered on the orders of Isabella and Mortimer.  Relations between Mortimer and the young Edward III became more and more strained.  In 1330, the 18 year old King Edward III conducted a coup d’état at Nottingham Castle where Mortimer and Isabella were staying.  Mortimer was arrested and then executed on fourteen charges of treason, including the murder of Edward II.

After the coup, Isabella was first taken to Berkhamsted Castle and then held under house arrest at Windsor Castle until 1332, when she then was moved to her own Castle Rising in Norfolk.  Edward III granted his mother  a yearly income of £3,000, which by 1337 had increased to £4,000. She enjoyed a regal lifestyle, maintaining minstrels, huntsmen and grooms and being visited by family and friends.  On August 22, 1358, Isabella died at the age of 63.  She was buried at the now destroyed Franciscan Church at Newgate, London.  Her tomb did not survive the Dissolution of the Monasteries during the reign of King Henry VIII.

Wikipedia: Isabella of France

July 25: Today in Royal History

Elisabeth of Bavaria, wife of King Albert I of the Belgians; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

July 25, 1137 – Wedding of Louis VII, King of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Wikipedia: Louis VII, King of France
Wikipedia: Eleanor of Aquitaine

July 25, 1554 – Wedding of Queen Mary I of England and King Philip II of Spain at Winchester Cathedral in England
Wikipedia: Philip II of Spain
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Mary I of England

July 25, 1603 – Coronation of King James I of England
James’ wife Anne of Denmark was crowned with him.
Unofficial Royalty: King James VI of Scotland/King James I of England

July 25, 1642 – Birth of Louis I, Prince of Monaco
Wikipedia: Louis I, Prince of Monaco

July 25, 1797 – Birth of Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, wife of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, at Rumpenheim Castle in Kassel (Germany)
Augusta is the grandmother of Queen Mary, wife of King George V of the United Kingdom.
Wikipedia: Augusta of Hesse-Kassel

July 25, 1860 – Birth of Louise Margaret of Prussia, wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, at Marmorpalais in Potsdam, Prussia (Germany)
Full name: Luise Margarete Alexandra Victoria Agnes
Unofficial Royalty: Louise Margaret of Prussia

July 25, 1876 – Birth of Elisabeth of Bavaria, wife of King Albert I of the Belgians, at Possenhofen Castle in Bavaria (Germany)
Full name: Elisabeth Gabriele Valérie Marie
Unofficial Royalty: Elisabeth of Bavaria

July 25, 1938 – Death of Prince Franz I of Liechtenstein at Valtice, now in the Czech Republic; buried at the Liechtenstein Crypt in Vranov nearby Brno, Czech Republic
Wikipedia: Franz I of Liechtenstein

July 25, 1970 – Birth of Lord Nicholas Windsor, son of HRH The Duke of Kent, at University College Hospital in London, England
Full name: Nicholas Charles Edward Jonathan
Wikipedia: Lord Nicholas Windsor

Royal News: Sunday 24 July 2016

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Royal Birthdays & Anniversaries: July 24 – July 30

Lord Nicholas Windsor and his brother George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, Photo Credit – www.telegraph.co.uk

46th birthday of Lord Nicholas Windsor, son of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent; born at University College Hospital in London, England on July 25, 1970
Full name: Nicholas Charles Edward Jonathan
Wikipedia: Lord Nicholas Windsor

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20th birthday of Samuel Chatto, son of Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones and grandson of Princess Margaret; born in London, England on July 28, 1996
Full name: Samuel David Benedict
Wikipedia: Lady Sarah Chatto: Marriage and Issue

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Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz, Photo Credit – www.zimbio.com

80th birthday of Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz, sister of King Juan Carlos of Spain; born in Cannes, France on July 30, 1936
Unofficial Royalty: Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz

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James Ogilvy and Julia Rawlinson, Photo Credit – www.dailymail.co.uk

28th wedding anniversary of James Ogilvy, son of Princess Alexandra of Kent, and Julia Rawlinson; married at St. Mary the Virgin in Saffron Waldon, Essex, England on July 30, 1988
Wikipedia: James Ogilvy
Wikipedia: Julia Ogilvy

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5th wedding anniversary of Zara Phillips, daughter of Anne, Princess Royal, and Mike Tindall; married at the Canongate Kirk in Edinburgh, Scotland on July 30, 2011
Unofficial Royalty: Zara Phillips
Unofficial Royalty: Mike Tindall