Royal News: Friday 26 May 2017

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Robert II, King of Scots

by Susan Flantzer

Robert II, King of Scots from Forman Armorial (produced for Mary, Queen of Scots); Credit – Wikipedia

The first monarch of the House of Stewart, Robert II, King of Scots, was born at Paisley Abbey on March 2, 1316. He was the only child of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce, the daughter of Robert I the Bruce, King of Scots. His 19-year-old mother Marjorie had been riding in Paisley, Renfrewshire Scotland. Her horse was suddenly startled and threw her to the ground. Marjorie went into premature labor and her child Robert was delivered by caesarean section at the nearby Paisley Abbey. Sadly, Marjorie died within a few hours.

Robert’s father Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland gave his name to the Royal House of Stewart (later Stuart). The surname Stewart comes from the word steward, which means one who organizes the house of a king. The title of High Steward or Great Steward was given in the 12th century to Walter FitzAlan and shortly afterward, it was made a hereditary title. Walter FitzAlan’s grandson started to use Stewart as his surname. In 1371, Robert II, the 7th, and the last High Steward inherited the throne of Scotland. Since that time, the title of High (or Great) Steward of Scotland has been held as a subsidiary title of Duke of Rothesay and Baron of Renfrew, among the titles traditionally held by the heir apparent of Scotland. When James VI, King of Scots succeeded to the English throne upon the death of Queen Elizabeth I, those titles for the heir apparent came with James. Even today, The Prince of Wales holds the titles traditionally held by the English heir apparent, but also the traditional titles of the Scottish heir apparent: Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.

Robert had three half-siblings from his father’s second marriage to Isabel de Graham, daughter of Sir Nicholas de Graham, Lord of Dalkeith and Abercorn and Mary of Strathearn

  • Sir John Stewart of Ralston, married Alicia Mure, had issue
  • Sir Andrew Stewart, no issue
  • Egidia Stewart, married (1) Sir James Lindsay, of Crawford, Lord of Crawford and Kirkmichael, had issue (2) Sir Hugh Eglinton, Laird of Aird Rosainb, Eglintoun and Ormdale (3) Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith

In 1318, two-year-old Robert was declared heir to the Scottish throne if his grandfather Robert I did not have any male issue. Six years later, Robert I and his second wife Elizabeth de Burgh had a son David, who became heir to the Scottish throne. Robert’s father Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, died on April 9, 1326. He was buried at Paisley Abbey, alongside his first wife, Marjorie Bruce, and the previous five High Stewards. Ten-year-old Robert became the 7th High Steward of Scotland. The orphaned Robert was placed under the guardianship of his paternal uncle Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer, who raised his nephew and served as his tutor.

On June 7, 1329, Robert’s grandfather Robert I the Bruce, King of Scots died at the age of 54 and was succeeded by his five-year-old son David II, King of Scots. Robert I’s funeral procession was led by a line of knights dressed in black which included Robert’s 13-year-old grandson, Robert Stewart, 7th High Steward of Scotland, the future Robert II, King of Scots, the son of his daughter Marjorie Bruce. In 1326, the Scottish Parliament had restored Robert Stewart to the line of succession in the event his uncle David, who was eight years younger, did not have any male heirs. At the time of his restoration to the succession, Robert received grants of land in Argyll, Roxburghshire, and the Lothians.

However, David II’s accession to the throne sparked another war, the Second War of Scottish Independence and Robert’s position as heir was threatened. The death of Robert I had weakened Scotland considerably and his successor David II was still a child. The year before he had died, Robert I had arranged for the marriage of his four-year-old David to the seven-year-old Joan of the Tower, youngest daughter of King Edward II of England, in hopes of strengthening relations with England.

However, in 1332-1333, David’s brother-in-law, King Edward III of England, invaded Scotland in support of Edward Balliol‘s claim to the Scots throne and defeated the Scots. Edward Balliol was the eldest son of John Balliol who had been King of Scots from 1292 – 1296. David and Joan sought refuge in France and remained there from 1334 until May of 1341 when David returned to Scotland and took control of the government. King Philip VI of France persuaded David to invade England. However, the Scots forces were defeated at the Battle of Neville’s Cross on October 17, 1346 and David was taken prisoner. He was held by the English for 11 years and was finally freed in 1357 by the Treaty of Berwick which stipulated that a large ransom be paid over the next 10 years. Robert Stewart played a major role in the Bruce resistance to Edward Balliol and acted as Guardian of the Kingdom (regent) during David II’s years in France and his imprisonment in England.

Battle of Neville’s Cross from a manuscript Froissart’s Chronicle; Credit – Wikipedia

Robert had two wives. Elizabeth Mure died before Robert became king and Euphemia de Ross was his only Queen Consort. At first, Elizabeth Mure was the mistress of Robert Stewart. The couple married in 1346, but the marriage was not in agreement with the Canon Law of the Roman Catholic Church. After receiving a papal dispensation, the couple remarried. The children born before their marriage were legitimized. Despite the legitimization of Elizabeth’s children, there were family disputes over her children’s right to the crown.

Elizabeth and Robert’s daughter Jean Stewart and her second husband Sir John Lyon, Lord of Glamis had one son Sir John Lyon. Through him, Jean, and therefore Elizabeth Mure and Robert II, are ancestors of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, formerly Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon.  The elder Sir John was a courtier and diplomat, who was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal upon the accession of Robert II in 1371. The following year, Robert II granted him “the free barony of Glamuyss in the sheriffdom of Forfar.” Glamis has remained the seat of the family ever since. See Wikipedia: Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne for more information.

Elizabeth and Robert had at least ten children:

Elizabeth Mure died before May 1355 and was buried at Paisley Abbey in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland.

Robert II, King of Scots and Euphemia, Queen of Scots from Forman Armorial (produced for Mary, Queen of Scots); Credit – Wikipedia

Euphemia de Ross was the daughter and probably the only child of Hugh, 4th Earl of Ross and his second wife Margaret de Graham, daughter of Sir David de Graham of Montrose. On May 2, 1355, Euphemia married Robert Stewart, 7th High Steward of Scotland. In 1357, Robert was granted the title Earl of Strathearn, so Euphemia was then the Countess of Strathearn.

Euphemia and Robert had four children. The children of Robert II from both his marriages considered themselves the rightful heirs to the throne of Scotland, causing considerable family conflict.

Euphemia Stewart, Countess of Strathearn, granddaughter of Euphemia and Robert through their son David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn, is an ancestor of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother formerly Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. As an only child, Euphemia Stewart was heir to her father’s earldoms. She married Patrick Graham and their daughter Elizabeth married Sir John Lyon, 1st Master of Glamis, the son of Sir John Lyon who had married Jean Stewart, daughter of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure (see above). See Wikipedia: Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne for more information.

In the later years of his reign, David II, King of Scots continued to pursue peace with England and worked to make Scotland a stronger kingdom with a more prosperous economy. David II, aged 46, died unexpectedly on February 22, 1371 at Edinburgh Castle and was buried at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh, now in ruins. As both his marriages were childless, David was succeeded by his nephew, his senior by eight years, the son of his half-sister Marjorie, who became Robert II, King of Scots, the first monarch of the House of Stewart.

Robert II, King of Scots was crowned at Scone on March 26, 1371 by William de Landallis, Bishop of St. Andrews. Immediately after his coronation, his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick, was recognized as the heir apparent. In order to dispel all conflict among the children of his two marriages, Robert II had a succession act passed in Parliament in 1373. If the heir apparent John, Earl of Carrick dies without sons, the succession would pass to Robert, Duke of Albany and then to his younger brothers from Robert II’s two marriages in order of birth. As his reign progressed, Robert II delegated more power to his three eldest sons, John, Earl of Carrick and heir to the throne; Robert, Duke of Albany and Alexander, Earl of Buchan, who became his lieutenant in the north of Scotland.

Dundonald Castle; Photo Credit – By Otter – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4506227

Fortunately, Robert II’s reign was more peaceful than previous reigns. Hostilities with England were renewed in 1378 and went on intermittently for the rest of Robert II’s reign. In 1384, when Robert II became senile, he left the administration of the kingdom to his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick.  Euphemia de Ross, Queen of Scots died in 1386 and was buried at Paisley Abbey in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland. Robert II, King of Scots survived his wife by four years, dying on April 19, 1390 at the age of 74 at Dundonald Castle in Ayrshire. He was buried at Scone Abbey. His son John, Earl of Carrick succeeded him as Robert III, King of Scots.

Wikipedia: Robert II of Scotland

Works Cited

  • “David II, King Of Scots”. Unofficial Royalty. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
  • “High Steward Of Scotland”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
  • “Robert I Of Scotland”. Unofficial Royalty. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
  • “Robert II Of Scotland”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
  • “Walter Stewart, 6Th High Steward Of Scotland : Genealogics”. Genealogics.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
  • “Walter Stewart, 6Th High Steward Of Scotland”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
  • Williamson, David. Brewer’s British Royalty. London: Cassell, 1996. Print.
  • “Wives of Robert II: Elizabeth Mure and Euphemia de Ross”. Unofficial Royalty. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.

May 26: Today in Royal History

Victoria Mary of Teck, Queen of the United Kingdom; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 26, 946 – Murder of King Edmund I of England in Pucklechurch, South Gloucestershire, England; buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset, England
Wikipedia: King Edmund I of England

May 26, 1796 – Birth of Prince Alois II of Liechtenstein in Vienna, Austria
Wikipedia: Prince Alois II of Liechtenstein

May 26, 1822 – Birth of Augusta Reuss of Köstritz, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Wikipedia: Augusta Reuss of Köstritz, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

May 26, 1826 – Birth of Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia, first wife of Grand Duke Adolphe I of Luxembourg, in the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia
Elizabeth died at age 18 in childbirth along with her baby daughter.  Her husband had an Orthodox church built for her remains.  The church was built on a hill which was visible from Adolphe’s residence so he could always see where Elizabeth’s remains were buried.
Wikipedia: Elizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia

May 26, 1842 – Wedding of King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: King Christian IX of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Louise of Hesse-Kassel, Queen of Denmark

May 26, 1867 – Birth of Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, wife of King George V of the United Kingdom, at Kensington Palace in London, England
Full name: Victoria Mary Augusta Louisa Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes
Unofficial Royalty: Mary of Teck, Queen of the United Kingdom

May 26, 1896 – Coronation of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia in Moscow, Russia
Royal Russia: The Coronation of Nicholas II

May 26, 1968 – Birth of Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark at the Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark
Full name: Frederik André Henrik Christian
Unofficial Royalty: Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark

May 26, 1989 – Death of Kazuko Takatsukasa, daughter of Emperor Hirohito of Japan
Kazuko, Princess Taka was the elder sister of the current Emperor Akihito. She lost her Imperial status upon marriage.
Wikipedia: Kazuko Takatsukasa

Royal News: Thursday 25 May 2017

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May 25: Today in Royal History

King Abdullah I of Jordan; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 25, 1553 – Wedding of Lady Jane Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley at Durham House in London, England
Unofficial Royalty: Lady Jane Grey
Wikipedia: Lord Guildford Dudley

May 25, 1690 – Birth of Prince Johann Josef Adam of Liechtenstein in Vienna, Austria
Wikipedia: Prince Johann Josef Adam of Liechtenstein

May 25, 1786 – Death of King Pedro III of Portugal, husband and uncle of Queen Maria I of Portugal, co-reigned alongside her until his death; buried at the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon
Wikipedia: King Pedro III of Portugal

May 25, 1846 – Birth of Princess Helena of the United Kingdom, daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Buckingham Palace
Full name: Helena Augusta Victoria
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Helena of the United Kingdom

May 25, 1865 – Birth of Frederick Augustus III, last King of Saxony
Wikipedia: Frederick Augustus III, King of Saxony

May 25, 1946 – Abdullah bin al-Hussein becomes King of Jordan
King Abdullah I was the grandfather of  King Hussein I.
Wikipedia: King Abdullah I of Jordan

May 25, 1961 – Wedding of King Hussein I of Jordan and Antoinette Gardiner, in Amman, Jordan
This was King Hussein’s second marriage. Miss Gardiner became HRH Princess Muna al-Hussein. They the parents of the current King, Abdullah II.
Unofficial Royalty: King Hussein I of Jordan
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Muna al-Hussein

May 25, 1961 – Civil Marriage of Princess Birgitta of Sweden and Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern, at the Royal Palace, Stockholm
Princess Birgitta is the elder sister of King Carl XVI Gustaf. Due to her ‘equal’ marriage, she is the only of the King’s sisters who remained a member of the Royal Court.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Birgitta of Sweden
Wikipedia: Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern

May 25, 1966 – Birth of Petra Laurentien Brinkhorst, wife of Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands, in Leiden, The Netherlands
Unofficial Royalty: Laurentien Brinkhorst, Princess of the Netherlands

May 25, 1983 – Death of Idris, first and only King of Libya,
Unofficial Royalty: Idris, King of Libya

Royal News: Wednesday 24 May 2017

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Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe, Queen of Württemberg

photo: Von Andreas Faessler – Eigenes Werk, CC-BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39455299

Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe, Queen of Württemberg

Princess Charlotte Marie Luise Ida Hermine Mathilde of Schaumburg-Lippe was the second wife of King Wilhelm II of Württemberg, and the country’s last Queen. She was born on September 10, 1864 at Schloss Ratiborschitz in Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic), to Prince Wilhelm of Schaumburg-Lippe and Princess Bathildis of Anhalt-Dessau, and had seven younger siblings:

Charlotte was raised primarily at Schloss Náchod, the family’s estate in Náchod (now in the Czech Republic), and showed a great interest in sports and hunting, in addition to the more traditional music and art.

King Wilhelm II of Württemberg. source: Wikipedia

At 22 years old, Charlotte married the then-Crown Prince Wilhelm of Württemberg on April 8, 1886. Wilhelm had been widowed four years earlier and had a young daughter. Despite hoping that this new marriage might produce a male heir, Charlotte and Wilhelm had no children of their own.

In October 1891, Charlotte became Queen of Württemberg when her husband succeeded to the throne. The couple took up residence at the Wilhelmspalais in Stuttgart. As Queen, Charlotte didn’t enjoy the same popularity that her husband did. Much of this is her unwillingness to carry out her public role in the way that was expected of her by the people of Württemberg. She much preferred more private events, and after some time, stopped accompanying her husband on many official events.

source: Wikipedia

Despite this, Charlotte took on the charity work which was expected of her, assuming the role in several organizations vacated by her predecessor. Causes of most interest to her involved the health and welfare of women, and she was most willing to use her royal position to bring support and attention to them.

When the monarchy came to an end in 1918, King Wilhelm II negotiated with the new German state to ensure that he and his wife would receive an annual income, as well as a residence for life – Schloss Bebenhausen. The two retired to Bebenhausen, where Wilhelm died in 1921. Queen Charlotte remained there, going by the title Duchess of Württemberg, for another 25 years.

Having suffered a stroke which confined her to a wheelchair two years earlier, Queen Charlotte died at Schloss Bebenhausen on July 16, 1946. With little pomp or ceremony, she was quietly buried beside her husband in the Old Cemetery on the grounds of Ludwigsburg Palace.

In addition to having been the last Queen of Württemberg, Charlotte held the distinction of being the last living Queen from any of the German states.

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May 24: Today in Royal History

Queen Victoria with her mother; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 24, 1141 – Birth of King Malcolm IV of Scotland
Wikipedia: King Malcolm IV of Scotland

May 24, 1153 – Death of King David I of Scotland at Carlisle, Cumbria; buried at Dunfermline Abbey in Fife, Scotland
Wikipedia: King David I of Scotland

May 24, 1819 – Birth of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom at Kensington Palace in London, England
Full name: Alexandrina Victoria
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom

May 24, 1874 – Birth of Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, at Neues Palais in Darmstadt, Germany
Full name: Marie Viktoria Feodore Leopoldine
Known as May, she was the daughter of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.  She died of diphtheria at age four.  Her mother succumbed to the same disease a couple of weeks later.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine

May 24, 1913 – Wedding of Prince Ernst Augustus of Hanover and Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia
Viktoria Luise was the only daughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor. She and Ernst Augustus are the grandparents of King Constantine II of Greece and Queen Sofia of Spain.
Wikipedia: Prince Ernst Augustus of Hanover
Wikipedia: Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia

May 24, 1935 – Wedding of King Frederik IX of Denmark and Princess Ingrid of Sweden at Storkyrkan in Stockholm, Sweden
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of King Frederik IX of Denmark and Princess Ingrid of Sweden
Unofficial Royalty: King Frederik IX of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Queen Ingrid of Sweden

May 24, 1995 – Birth of Prince Joseph Wenzel of Liechtenstein, eldest son of Hereditary Prince Alois, in London, England
Full name: Joseph Wenzel Maximilian Maria
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Joseph Wenzel of Liechtenstein

May 24, 2002 – Wedding of Princess Märtha Louise of Norway and Ari Behn at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, Norway
The couple has separated and will be divorced.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Märtha Louise of Norway
Unofficial Royalty: Ari Behn

May 24, 2008 – Wedding of Prince Joachim of Denmark and Marie Cavallier at Møgeltønder Church near Schackenborg Castle in Møgeltønder, Southern Jutland, Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Prince Joachim of Denmark
Unofficial Royalty: Marie Cavallier, Princess of Denmark

Royal News: Tuesday 23 May 2017

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May 23: Today in Royal History

Marie of Waldeck-Pyrmont, wife of King William II of Württemberg; Photo Credit – Wikipedia

May 23, 1052 – Birth of King Philip I (the Amorous) of France in Champagne-et-Fontaine, France
Wikipedia: King Philip I of France

May 23, 1482 – Death of Mary of York, daughter of King Edward IV of England, at Greenwich Palace in London, England; buried at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle
Wikipedia: Mary of York

May 23, 1857 – Birth of Marie of Waldeck-Pyrmont, wife of King Wilhelm II of Württemberg, in Arolsen, Waldeck and Pyrmont (Germany)
Unofficial Royalty: Marie of Waldeck-Pyrmont

May 23, 1947 – Death of Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood, husband of Mary, Princess Royal, at Harewood House in Leeds, Yorkshire, England; buried at Harewood House
Unofficial Royalty: Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood

May 23, 1923 – Birth of Palden Thondup Namgyal, 12th Chogyal of Sikkim
Palden was the last king of Sikkim, a Himalayan country that is now part of India. His second wife was Hope Cooke, an American socialite.
Wikipedia: Palden Thondup Namgyal, 12th Chogyal of Sikkim

May 23, 2010 – Death of Princess Leonida Bagration-Moukhransky, wife of Grand Duke Vladimir Kirilovich, pretender to the Russian throne, in Madrid, Spain; buried at the Grand Ducal Burial Vault at the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, Russia
Wikipedia: Princess Leonida Bagration-Moukhransky
YouTube: Funeral of Leonida Georgievna, Grand Duchess of Russia